22/09/2011

HD Voice technology, and Bluetooth cell phone headset implementation

HD Voice also known as voice over broadband, Acer aspire one Zg5 is a cellular network for mobile phones and wireless headsets transmit high-definition, natural sound quality of audio technology. Compared to traditional telephone, voice close high definition voice quality improved, reducing the burden of hearing.

The chain of the communications industry is subject to all networks and devices to support HD voice will demonstrate the Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery benefits of technology to. Work in June 2011, 18 countries, the mobile network 20 and 33 brands of mobile phones have a high definition audio. Using Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband (AMR-WB) speech coding, GSM, WCDMA (UMTS) mobile networks and LTE introduces high-definition audio. Moreover, according to the modified sub-band coding (MSBC) voice codec technology began Bluetooth wireless headsets that support HD voice, free calls combined with high quality voice.

HD voice services can be reflected in the existing network. Similar to the narrow-band networks and devices transition to high definition voice, as the extension of the bandwidth (BWE) technology, natural language processing to the terminal of calls are high-quality analog can be used to do not support high definition hp pavilion dv4 battery voice features of the device a compromise solution.

On near High Definition Audio

The bandwidth of conventional telephone system over 300 Hz to 3.4 kHz audio-frequency range is limited, this area is often referred to as narrow-band voice. Although the phone system is digital, but it's the same with the bandwidth of conventional analog system is going. From the point of DELL Latitude E6410 Battery view of voice quality, lack of natural narrow-band speech voice fidelity, often described as thin and blurred. However, the frequency range of narrow band for the full explanation for the degree of votes to identify the approximately 99%.

HD Voice when the sampling Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery frequency of 16 kHz audio bandwidth from 50 Hz to about 7, the speech signal from narrowband voice clear. Although broadband and voice is not significantly improve the understanding of speech, but the limited scope of 3.4kHz to 7 kHz increased friction sounds in words (eg, F, S, E) the degree of identification. Broadband can be a real voice in the natural voice speech subjective audio quality has improved significantly narrow. HD Voice Expansion outside of 50Hz to 300Hz to reduce Toshiba PA3399U-1BAS battery low-frequency characteristics of the narrow high-pitched voice and the expansion of high-frequency tones are much improved.

In the test of subjective voice quality of listening, voice opinion score high-speed (MOS) of 4.5 points, while narrowband voice of 3.2 points (1 poor, 5 very good) was. Improve the quality of voice over broadband to reduce the load on fatigue the ear of the listener, especially when the Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery listener in noisy environments. Network provider Orange mobile phone offers on its website a hearing as an example of the benefits of HD Voice. Orange in June 2010 a new investigation to prove by the end user of the value of other high-definition voice:

* Customer satisfaction of 96% with high definition voice;

* 86% of respondents indicated that they are compatible with HD voice, when the future purchase of a criterion for selecting the telephone;

* 76% of participants were willing to replace the phone for voice HD.

In addition, in 2006, and confirms Ericsson T-Mobile users for the study of the study the benefits of HD Voice. Sample of 150 users in more than 70% of people believe that the best use of mobile voice high definition quality and better after the conversation in a noisy environment, the quality of dialogue.

HD Voice necessary to support the voice communication system for all aspects of the HP Pavilion dv7 battery quality of the voice frequency broadband wide (Figure 2). Technology high definition voice is key in cellular networks by hand and using codec AMR-WB in collaboration. A speech coding wideband AMR-WB, the effective bandwidth of narrowband audio encoding twice as AMR-NB. Finally, a voice of high-definition, cooperation between the base station and handset with AMR-WB encoded transmission of voice, in the process of change or transformation from one end of a speech coding. HD voice connection can not be achieved if the system is in place of the narrow-band-AMR-NB code.

Advanced voiceband

It can be expected, the introduction of high definition voice in the process does not support certain aspects of communication systems, because the conversion to a narrow band voice frequency, the increase even in the lower voice quality, the charge of the hearing. Extension Artificial bandwidth (BWE) in the communication system through the terminal portion of the speech signal to narrow band by the addition of artificially generated sounds to losses in the transmission of high frequency and low frequency voice (Figure 3). BWE to expand in this way, the benefits of high definition audio, and transition to the Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery bandwidth of a mixture of voice communication systems.

BWE algorithm is the use of voice, to appreciate the sound source-filter model and produce a wide frequency range of content of speech. According to this model is the voice of a sound source (eg vocal cords) produces along a simulated channel model. BWE algorithm to estimate the narrowband voice model based broadband noise source, and then use the model to estimate the parameters of the broadband spectrum of their loss. In practice, BWE, regardless of the source coding and Dell Studio 1537 Battery processing route of transmission, so it can be mixed with the narrow bandwidth of conventional telephone networks and coexistence.

BWE is mainly used in Bluetooth headsets and car kits. In these devices, the receiving terminal, the CVSD coded voice signal narrow band is first decoded and then after treatment BWE, then the parties have extended bandwidth speech signals. BWE also in high definition telephone network, which will be enhanced bandwidth of the speech HP 620 Battery signal of 14 kHz ultra-wideband frequency range (SWB) used.

HD Voice and audio accessories

High-definition audio enhancement and voice processing methods (such as noise suppression (NS), echo cancellation (AEC)), and can improve speech understanding in noisy environments, and all can improve. Noise suppression techniques to analyze the noise of a mixture of dialogue and turn off the sound louder voice tag. A lot of noise reduction algorithm for estimating the spectral power Sony VGP-BPS9/b Battery density of noise, noise, and then extracted the dialogue. Compared with treatment narrowband to broadband noise reduction, the calculation of the noise spectrum to increase the frequency of more data on the frequency range of compression noise. In addition to noise suppression, echo cancellation creates the approach eliminates the coupling between loudspeaker and microphone to the sound of the echo signal. Echo cancellation works of the signal received by the microphone to isolate a copy of the filtered and delayed. The echo cancellation Sony VAIO VGN-FZ Battery technology for the calculation of votes in broadband adaptive filter coefficients.

Bluetooth technology in the HD Voice

As the current Bluetooth mobile phone car kits have become popular configuration so important that it is compatible with HD voice. This feature has been the voice codec Bluetooth MSBC reality.

Bluetooth Advanced Audio Distribution Model (A2DP) require the use of sub-band coding (SBC) for the mandatory audio codec, dell studio xps 13 battery handset and headset to ensure interoperability. SBC is a low complexity codec is the compression ratio of moderate support for 16kHz, 32kHz, the sampling rate 44.1 kHz and 48 kHz, and a voice of high-definition, of course, the choice of Bluetooth . In terms of voice, broadband-16kHz, SBC can be compressed 64kbps data rate of 04.01. However, to do if part of the SBC-coding via Bluetooth, it can not be linked to meet the underlying Bluetooth packets. MSBC is a codec technology developed to comply with SBC and Bluetooth data packets in May 2011 and is defined as a Bluetooth Hands-Free Profile 1.6 required in the codec.

In the encoding and decoding performance, with ITU-T G.722 codec comparable MSBC Speaking broadband system is widely used as a decoding Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS battery system, new information on quality. In general, the error MSBC audio signal to the score of voice quality over G.722 plan. MSBC will get multiple encoding encoding / decoding channel to a better average quality than G.722 voice.

Summary

Compared to traditional voice narrow band high definition audio provides excellent voice quality in noisy environments to reduce the burden of hearing. Listening tests and user trials, high-definition voice are shown a significant advantage. Take the mobile network and handset AMR-WB speech codec system, the system of MSBC Bluetooth headset voice codec HD-Telephony use. In addition, the use of mobile phones and headsets, noise reduction and echo cancellation algorithms, high-definition audio experience for the best voice quality. As network operators and Dell Latitude D630 Battery equipment manufacturers will gradually introduce the consumer market, the HD-phone, Bluetooth headset on the approach of expanding the bandwidth to bring the benefits voice users and high-definition mixed tape bandwidth mobile network.

 

14:04 Publié dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)

08/09/2011

The development of Digital Photography

Digital Photography for all the technology in the shooting by an electronic sensor and SONY VGP-BPL9 battery processing techniques, to obtain. This area is as much art as technology has developed mainly since the 1980s, and we'll find out.

Having kept a foot in the professional photography, it seemed interesting to discuss in this article, digital cameras (APN) to be reflective, its technological development, performance and limitations.

The subject is so vast that the technologies and evolving, it would be vain and arrogant, all explained in a few pages break down or claim the benefits or disadvantages of a system.

As in all areas, we have to make decisions. My colleagues can be determined from time to time, comments approximate or incomplete, but they say that it is not an encyclopedia article on the subject. This article is primarily for amateurs, to gain a first SLR camera and want to be as complete a picture as possible of the potential of these SONY VGP-BPS12 battery devices, their strengths and potential weaknesses. For readers to deepen some of the details, the details of several websites on digital photography at the end of the last page contains.

Today, signs of the times, the camera is almost considered a consumable item. Actually used the technology and the famous Moore's Law out of fashion and models that depreciate quickly here three years ago at the top. This dramatic fall in prices (up to 35% in two years) will soon encourage fans to renew their equipment as fast as their GSM!

But the case of a photographer who has a "good" means that the DSLR quality and performance is usually an expensive, premium products and brand new  Asus Eee PC battery. But the market moves. In 2006 is 36% of DSLR models have been proposed several dozen to more than € 1000 without optics. Today the number has dropped to less than 20%, representing a dozen models. This suggests that the technology has been profitable, it is now democratized and accessible to all.

Since we do not buy a pig in a poke, for beginners and professionals, sometimes a lot of money invested in a DSLR requires thinking, especially since a few years it will be worth more than 10% of its value ... We'll be back.

The price and Asus A32-F3 battery performance of the NPC is its Achilles heel, the more demanding and therefore more expensive, in principle, better photographs under difficult conditions, which sells a cheap device for a few hundred dollars, without denigrating the value of these smaller models. We will see a little further to justify the price difference.

For the benefit of readers who are still hesitating, the threshold of photo shops cross, we will take a brief overview of the Dell Studio 1735 battery history of the digital revolution and then discuss the properties of various elements of a digital camera, and its shortcomings, the history, trust in the light of this technology. We have defined some basic concepts of photography and living on general concepts such as compatibility with older optical systems, or between the new brands.

Topics covered in this article successively

- The history of invention and the state of the market today (next page)

- Housing, including liability, monitor, monitor, parts

- The light sensor and its properties

- Image formats, including RAW and HDR

- The storage of images, memory card and external card reader

- The goals, quality, performance, "cultures factor" compatibility issues

- Measurements of light and exposure

- The flash and the battery and connections

- Disadvantages of digital cameras and precautions

- Finally, a summary, a few words about the reliability of the NPC and key questions to ask before you buy.

In other articles, we will say a few words about the calibration of the camera, why the price of high-end digital camera, the quality assessment of digital images and photographic profession, markets and the crisis in the sector has the digital revolution.

History of an invention

Be established in the Dell XPS M1530 battery search for more than a generation, the development of photography in a time machine penetrated all spheres of life, it is true, has a photograph bears the weight of the Digital Wave has more than 20 years of surfing and suffered with after crisis is still felt today. In fact, this technological revolution has had the effect of an earthquake in the small world of photography was rooted in the classical tradition more than a century old, but like many, was far from imagining what it would be the effect of new Dell Studio 1537 battery technologies.

1981, the presentation of the Mavica

Once again, Sony's first company in the world would understand the advantages of digital photography. After the launch in 1980, the first CCD camera 25 August 1981 in Tokyo, Sony's first digital camera, the Mavica, a name derived from "magnetic camera". Two weeks later, it's time to resist.

With a CCD 279 300 pixels of silicon (570 x 490 pixels) were 50 color images (RGB), known as the back of a mini-disco Mavipak. It 'was created by three AA batteries, pens,Dell XPS M1330 battery power supply. There was only 1/60th of a sensitivity of ASA 200 (ISO), and a single speed, but it was equipped with three interchangeable lenses and bayonet and a method of multiple exposure. The user can view the images on television or in a thermal printer to display the Mavigraph. The Mavica was the sale of $ 650 and $ 220 floppy drive.

Like its competitors react then? Most U.S. companies involved in this innovation did not develop their own video, but their capabilities are RCA.

As for Kodak, Dell Vostro 1510 battery was sworn in for silver. "I do not see what was going to buy digital cameras with a resolution of no more than TV (350 lines for the Mavica line against 525 for NTSC), while the cameras already on the same principle." John Robertson, vice president of Kodak found that the "silver market has grown over the next ten years will continue", as until the beginning of 1990. Unfortunately for him, he needs to maintain his vision. Until I said, "deals with the problem years ago and decided that there was no market for this product." Meanwhile, Polaroid "saw no reason to follow Sony on the way to the electronic image." This is not American producers, we have not invented, in order to avoid any law or regulation for protectionist Sony to capture the SONY VGP-BPS13 battery market! But the public decides otherwise.

Remember that 1981 is a crucial year in the art. This year was the famous 5150 IBM PC equipped with an operating system invented by a small company called ... Asahi Pentax ME SLR Microsoft and comes with the first F-AF. Unfortunately for them, IBM engineers who do not believe in your  dell inspiron 1300 battery  invention and non-exclusive contracts in the PC-DOS or applications, or mouse. Therefore, the largest computer maker, lost time on the market of the century in favor of Bill Gates and Paul Allen.

The following year, repeated Sony invented the CD and the success of innovation. Together, these technological innovations will transform the world of media and the way we work.

A generation later, the Mavica still existed, of course, a very advanced version of the camera MVC-CD1000 sold June 13, 2000. Do not be surprised to learn that ... World's first camera with a CD-rewritable (CD-R) with a capacity of 156 MB and has a small sensor with 2.1 megapixels (Mpix). His success was mixed. Following the Acer AS07A51 battery progress of technology, this product is sold on the market today uses only 100 € less than 10% of its original value.

Since then, Sony has created another very competitive prices and successful, was published in the 10.2-megapixel Alpha A230 in 2009, suggested that less than 500 € with a 18-55 mm zoom lens f/3.5-5.6.

What is Sony now? Sony remains one of the most innovative companies in the world and one of the five camera manufacturers, the most aggressive. The quality of the product is well established.

Remember that Sony has appeared in the western market in 1955 with a first transistor radio. Since then, Ibuka and Morita small company born a giant. In 2008, HP Pavilion DV5000 battery sales reached (see also Listing NES) 76 million net profit of $ 3.19 billion in 10%. Sony is now in all high-tech sectors: computers, images, audio, video, television, wireless, robotics, etc., to the extent that it is probably a representative within 10 km radius of their home. As they say, welcome to the world of Sony!

Since its founding in 1950, is the Photokina in Cologne, who comes every two years, making it a paradise for the photographer with the latest in leisure Imaging (photo, video amplifiers, SONY VGP-BPS2 battery software, etc..) There are also post- devoted to astronomical photography. Here is the Canon stand here that the Nikon..

Historically, most of the camera and its accessories from the Far East, which are almost all "made in Japan", carried by the wave of "zero defects" that the Japanese and Koreans, while the guards were seen and will continue.

With the invention of the Sony, the digital camera market has exploded. Since the Sony Mavica were evaluated according to the manufacturer's database by date dpreview magazine in 1677, several models of digital cameras, compact bag, reflective and bridges like!

In 2011, the merchant site Monsieurprix 407 models of digital cameras, whose output is always guaranteed. The SLR camera market to 12% compared with 77% of the compact.

In the field of digital SLR models is only 17% of the cost of ten units or more than € 1000 body only, I use it to lower the importance of mid-range categories (prosumer) HP 510 battery model and the premium for the benefit of the consumer, less automation complex, but intelligent.

Canon, reserving the largest share (25% in 2010), by Fujifilm for its fleet of a large number of compact digital cameras (12%) was dethroned, and sees competitors such as Nikon, Olympus, Samsung and Sony to maintain market share , equal to about 9% each, followed closely by Panasonic (7%) and Pentax (5%). The trade war is fierce among the 33 other brands have 50% market share.

In terms of interest (not sales) in 2011, Canon is leading with 25% of the fans (who lost four points compared to 2010), Olympus (19%), Nikon (18%), Sony (9%) and points with Fujifilm Panasonic (9%). The first four of the ranking has not changed in five years. That is, if potential HP F4809A battery customers to buy a camera, the choice of five or six manufacturers only a total of 41 producers.

What to do for those of you who are more interested in the "Photokina", "Pie" and other "PMA Show" for several years, reading the following pages show through the magazines and Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS battery reviews on the Internet complement what has been advanced in this area since 1980, and the focus of this new technology.

In a generation gap is enormous and even professionals are often surprised by the speed of this progress and somehow separated from technological innovations. In fact, following the evolution of miniaturization of electronics, including, but no one knows where it could bring. We see that, even if there is a limit or ceiling somebody invented the SONY VGP-BPS8 battery technology in a way to break through and the entire industry is gaining momentum.

Most digital SLR cameras are now so many incredible achievements that our traditional SLR look good old-fashioned, like the bellows of age of our grandparents. Think about it.

 

14:40 Publié dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)

01/09/2011

Try Ampera power without any conditions

The first prototype electric vehicles with Volt extended range was presented at the Detroit Motor Show in early 2007 by Chevrolet. Two years later, Opel presented the certified copy of the Geneva Motor Show, the ampere. And at the end of 2011, the United States and GM's European subsidiaries offer some of their Dell A3582339 Battery concessions from France in their E-REV (Extended Range Electric Vehicles), almost identical. Sold from November 2011, more than 1,500 units in France Ampera end of 2012, which has allocated 10,000 of GM's European market.

This is an extensive range of electric cars going for a car to get anywhere and anytime, without the stress, the risk of failure and time to load a pure EV (Electric Vehicle) want. This, very briefly, the car is equipped with a small gasoline generator to Dell Inspiron 5100 Battery power the electric motor. This is the answer to Chevrolet and Opel, the problem of limited range of electric vehicles. Versatile wireless and acceptable, the Ampera can, without the limitations of a single car family size.

In short, it is completely clean and economical, if you're driving in electric only mode, and can do 40 to 80 miles depending on conditions (weather, driving style, traffic and topography of the course), which statistically 80% daily trips made by European riders. Once the Asus Eee PC 1005hab battery capacity of lithium-ion battery discharge (16 kWh stored in cells 288 and weighs 198 kg), the Ampera stay sober "surprising" Opel to launch its "range extender" engine combustion, traveling nearly 500 km ( on average). What we're trying to prove.

The exterior design of the Ampera the Volt is not really different, with the exception of the boomerang-shaped headlights, integrated fog lights come in their midst. The vehicle has a low profile with less than 1.44 m in height, looks very clean and streamlined.

The Ampera not offer the space of five-door compact sedan large (4.50 m long), but rather a small and compact. It usually takes place in the large fuel tank capacity battery,Dell Inspiron 2650 Battery, two electric motors to allow for thermal generators, etc.. As a test, only four places, certainly worthy and safe, as only 310 liters when the category average of about 375 liters.

The interior is cozy, with visible effort furniture leather in two tones, integrated gear, dual screens with touch screen audio and navigation system for our high version of "Cosmo Pack", but some details (some plastics, cache simple material luggage ...) denote a little 'inside connected. Some also show defects in the Dell Inspiron 1721 Battery production of assembly in the United States are made.

Finally, a VE can be used without restrictions

The heart of the amplifier is an electric motor of 111 kW/150 hp, 16-kWh battery,Dell Latitude X300 Battery, a generator combustion gas engine of 1.4 liters of 63 kW/86 hp electric motor-generator and a 54 kW / 72 CV. All that is transmitted by electronic power and torque to the front wheels through a team of planetary resources (such as a crown, a warming planet and IV) act automatic transmission (to make it easier!) Runs a report and, if necessary .

This mode of transmission of the 4-Ampera relationship more than a full hybrid (DERI hybrid and parallel) and make a total of three claws to improve performance and driveability. The transmission system is such that even in pure electric mode, which can be designed to provide full acceleration and top speed. The generator can produce enough extra energy, in theory, to achieve the same performance, even with a dead battery. The engine and generator to start automatically when the Dell Inspiron Mini 1012 Battery charge to reach its minimum.

Such as performance, top speed is electronically limited (not verified this first trial in the country of Holland) to 161 miles per hour limit. For several reasons. First order does not drain the batteries(Dell Precision M4500 Battery) too quickly to maintain acceptable performance according to the transmission and eventually be accessible when the 1.4 liters of 63 kW/86 hp is the most important factor for the development of amplifiers. In other words, avoid this limitation of the V max of motors and generators, large temporary shoulder. Receive, without the noise of a CVT-presses in agony, as the vehicle acceleration is suited for family use, apparently, the Dell XPS M2010 Battery itself, but I really do not feel 150 hp and 370 nm is under the hood (it 's electric traction motors). This may be due to the automatic transmission and, particularly important with an unladen weight, the message says Ampera scales to over 1700 pounds, more than three pounds of 58 compact sedans. The acceleration is actually correct, rather an example of the Insignia 2.0 CDTI 160 hp automatic transmission (9.1 to 9.6 seconds from 0 to 100 mph and 9.4 seconds. For us, with two people on board).

If Ampera Dell Studio 15 Battery describes the car fun to drive, it is easy to argue that it's almost more relaxing and less sad than the raw power of this kind Leaf Nissan, and like most hybrids, the Toyota Prius. The situation of the street is these qualities, healthy and easy to use, without interfering with the weight of the car is not evasive maneuvers. Despite a reassuring brake pedal assault, lack of transparency in normal use, the dose, but not for Dell Vostro A860 Battery energy recovery. Small apartment beyond the address of underdevelopment, the need to be very focused on the wheel and / or micro-adjustments at high speeds. As for the suspension comfort, not out of the ordinary.

 

15:24 Publié dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)