The relation of nanotechnology ,Maya and Nanoart

It uses nanotechnology for the centuries. A good example is the Maya Blue, a blue pigment is first in the ninth century by the Maya and Aztecs. It is a hybrid compound consisting of particles of organic material (indigo, derived from the leaves of the indigo) and inorganic (a silicate layer, which in some clays). The result is a substance very resistant to the passage of time, weather, and even most chemical solvents and acids. The organic dyes are generally degraded very low resistance and easy, but in this case, their Dell Inspiron Mini 1012 Battery association with an inorganic material is a "protection".

The cut was made to the Lycurgus C in the fourth century in Rome. At daybreak the mythological scene is represented in green and opaque. If it glows red from the inside out and becomes translucent. Responsible for these color changes, nanoparticles of gold and silver Dell Studio 17 Battery  will be produced.

Without knowing it, nanotechnology

Another interesting example of the use of nanotechnology in old age is the color of the windows of cathedrals. The colors were obtained by heating and cooling the glass in a controlled manner. What is unknown to the Middle Ages through this process that is achieved, the size of the crystals on the nanometer scale and thus to change Asus UX50 Battery its color.

Even during the Middle Ages, the famous ceramics of Manises (Valencia), a formula from the Andalusian Muslims who succeeded importing the highly praised the metallic luster of its parts. This recetaincluía nanoparticles of silver and copper.

In Damascus steel forged from the Middle Ages, the most famous swords, cut hard, hard, and yet in a position with his razor, hair loss. Recent studies have the presence of carbon nanotubes in their composition, prepared by the methods used reveals forging. These nanotubes Asus UX50V Battery are recently discovered properties of nanoparticles to exceptional hardness. The difference in this old nanotechnology today is that we now have the tools to see what happens on the nanometer scale and the forecasting rules, the materials we use instead of study design and enables the development of error.

The kick-off

The beginning of the conscious thought of the benefits of nanotechnology developments are often attributed to Richard Feynman, Nobel, who predicted in 1959, in a lecture titled "There's plenty of room at the end," the first ideas behind nanotechnology. "I want to describe an area," Feynman began, "in which very little has been done, but done in principle in which many Dell XPS M1330 Battery things can be.

Also the most important thing that could have many technological applications. What I want is to address the problem of manipulation and control of objects in a small way "..." What are the properties of materials, if we really wanted we? I do not know exactly what was coming, but I have no doubt that if controlásemos placing objects on a small scale, would give access to a variety of properties, the existing materials Dell Studio 1536 Battery and we could have to do many things. "

But while R. Feynman had a vision as sharp, take decades to be capable of tools that make us to manipulate and observe matter to allow the develop nanoscale. For example, it was not until 1981 that G. Binning and H. Rohrer, a kind of microscope, called the STM to see that he and moving atoms for the first time. In 1986 he received the Nobel Prize for their Dell Studio 1735 Battery discovery.


The image of this little world again that we begin to explore, are very suggestive in terms of aesthetics and communication. All these possibilities, the exhibition "A walk through the visit of nano" at the Ethnography Museum of Castilla y León Zamora from 16 June-24. July, you can discover Dell XPS M1730 Battery for themselves the artistic proposals.


15:34 Publié dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)

The facts of nanotechnology to health

Developing countries can use nanotechnology to improve health? The promise of nanomedicine.

Priya Shetty

Nanotechnology, the science of the infinitely small, has enormous potential for health care more efficient distribution of drugs, diagnose diseases faster and more sensitivity and distribution of vaccines through aerosols or patches.

Nanotechnology SONY VGP-BPS9 battery is the science of materials at the molecular or subatomic. Involves the manipulation of particles smaller than 100 nanometers (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter) and involves developing materials or devices of this size, invisible to the naked eye, often hundreds of times thinner than the thickness of a human hair. Physics and chemistry of materials are diametrically different, if the nanoscale reduced, they revolutionize the different resistance, conductivity and reactivity, HP Pavilion DV7 battery and the use of medicine.

For example, is a major challenge for modern medicine, the body absorb administered is not able to complete the dose of medication to a patient. Using nanotechnology, scientists can ensure that drugs are released in certain areas of the body more accurately, so that the drugs are formulated so that the active ingredients penetrate cell membranes, where dose required SONY VGP-BPS8 battery ....

Rich countries are investing heavily in nanotechnology to health. The first generation of drugs against cancer delivered by the nanoparticles, for example, Toshiba PA3728U-1BRS battery has already been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for its acronym in English) approved by the United States.

It is too early to speak of nanotechnology in health care and is still hotly debated, the possibility that it is useful for poor countries. Critics argue that if millions of people from countries like India and in sub-Saharan Africa die from lack of access to basic health care,Toshiba PA3634U-1BAS battery  investment in technology is an absurd waste of money.

Critics argue that if millions of people from countries like India and in sub-Saharan Africa die from lack of access to basic health care, investment in technology is an absurd waste of money.

Experts fear that the toxicity Toshiba PA3728U-1BRS battery of nanoparticles on human health and the environment have not been adequately studied. For example, a 2004 report recommended by the Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering in the UK that are of nanoparticles and nanotubes, cylindrical molecules of carbon, the better conductor than normal carbon molecules were treated as hazardous waste.

Many emerging countries like Brazil, China, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore and South Africa have big plans for research and development (R & D) in nanotechnology. Their governments need to balance the needs of short-term health investments in Toshiba PABAS178 battery technology.

But while the poor countries to build a permanent system of responsibility for health, and have better access to medicine, nanotechnology could, in the long run to save lives by improving the diagnosis and treatment.

A group of scientists describes the uses of nanotechnology and global health needs states that nanomedicine is relevant to the developing world. The researchers interviewed over the world and concluded that nanotechnology could contribute significantly to achieving the Millennium Toshiba PA3635U-1BAM battery Development Goals in the health field. Specifically, the goals of reducing child mortality, reducing maternal mortality and combating HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Diagnosis and Detection

In the developing world an urgent need for better diagnosis of diseases, nanotechnology offers multiple options for screening.

One way is to use quantum dots, nano-sized semiconductors that can be used as biosensors to detect the disease and used as fluorescent.

Sometimes Toshiba PA3817U-1BAS battery called nanocrystals, quantum dots have significant advantages over traditional organic dyes, such as the fact that their brightness can be adapted to a wide range of frequencies and may degrade more slowly in the human body. Quantum dots of fluorescence can be associated with antibodies that target cancer cells or cells infected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV.

Fluorescent quantum dots can also be used to diagnose malaria, so this target the protein that forms a mesh in the inner membrane of red blood cells. The shape of the network evolution of proteins in cells infected with malaria, scientists can detect an infection caused by the points of form Toshiba PABAS228 battery.

Similarly, carbon nanotubes and other nanoparticles and nanowires were used as biosensors to detect diseases such as HIV and cancer. It can, for example, biosensors linking nucleic acid probes for cancer of the ends of the nanowires.

These Dell Latitude E6400 battery probes are specially designed to adhere to biomarkers that indicate cancer, a mutated RNA. When transferred to an RNA sample interacts with the probes, electric currents are induced along the nanowires, which is detected by the silicon chip that is embedded in the biosensor.

Drug Delivery

Nanotechnology can also revolutionize the distribution of drugs to overcome, such as maintaining the release of drugs in the human body and improve the bioavailability, ie the amount of active ingredient per dose.

Some drugs can now be released via 'nanovehicles. "For example, liposomes, which can charge the drug release through the fusion with cell membranes have been used to encapsulate anti-HIV drugs such as stavudine and zidovudine for vehicles from 120 to 200 nanometers in Dell Latitude E6410 battery size.

For two agents cover a short half-life may have to keep them active liposomes for a prolonged period.

Other delivery systems (hollow molecules composed entirely of carbon in the form of Football) the use of nano-fullerene cages drugs, known as "buckyballs," and calls nanomolecules branched dendrimers.


Nanotechnology could herald a new era in immunization with alternatives to injectable vaccines for diseases of the poor. Injectable vaccines have

managed by health professionals that are rare Toshiba PA3635U-1BRM battery in developing countries, particularly in rural areas. The vaccines also require adequate cooling of the supply chain. Scientists are working on a vaccine against tuberculosis aerosol. They also examine a patch of nanotechnology against the West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus.

Injectable vaccines may be useful if the inactive virus binds to the nanoparticles to enhance the immune response. This method is used to develop a vaccine against pandemic influenza.

Leaders in the package

So far, China tops the list of major developing countries in nanotechnology research, has the largest number of patents on this technology. He had a national nanotechnology since the early nineties and many new nanotechnology companies are established Toshiba PA3817U-1BRS battery each year.

India is also very serious about nanotechnology, with over 30 institutions involved in the investigation. The countries of South Asia are particularly active, with the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam engaged in nanotechnology research.

Meanwhile, Dell Latitude E6500 battery in Africa, South Africa to work in both public and private R & D in nanotechnology. Brazil, which is at the forefront of nanotechnology research in Latin America, South Africa and India together for South-South cooperation under the IBSA Nanotechnology Initiative to encourage.

Many other developing countries hope to catch up. A 2005 survey of the general activity of nanotechnology research classifies the countries that fall under national or financing activities (which clearly has a national or state funding), with at least one person or group of nanotechnology research is involved, Toshiba PA3636U-1BRL battery and those whose governments have expressed interest in pursuing nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is a science much, but the cost of creating a school appear to vary considerably across countries. For example, said in Mexico and Vietnam, it costs about $ 5 million to establish an institute for nanotechnology, but Costa Rica Dell Latitude E6510 battery has made for less than $ 500,000.

Public acceptance

What is technically possible Toshiba PA3638U-1BAP battery and what is ethically correct subject of heated debate. In developing countries, such as nanomedicine discusses the ethical problems created by genetically modified foods. If people need emergency food or medicine, no matter how you arrive? And people are illiterate or just right to participate in discussions on the impact of these new technologies in high society?. The invisible nature of nanotechnology is to "hide" more easily nano-products, penetrate and confidentiality procedures that require the consent, without the knowledge of the patient. This SONY VGP-BPS13 battery may be particularly relevant for clinical trials in developing countries nanodrogas.

If people need emergency food or medicine, no matter how you arrive?

Governments of developing countries must be careful. To ensure the ability of ethical clinical trials is usually very rare in the SONY VGP-BPS21 battery developing world and the introduction of health products based on nanotechnology that require building can missing. Like other health technologies, there is nothing inherently good or bad on nanotechnology. It depends on how it is used.

In the health field,Toshiba PABAS117 battery progress in nanotechnology with other technologies, including biotechnology and information technology are combined, causing them to "move" their potential for action systems and health, where regulation has worked in recent years. An example is the development of a computer-controlled molecular tools that have no direct intervention of a physician. O nano-sensors that store medical information to measure an individual may lead to problems of storage, HP Pavilion DM4 battery access and use of this information.

Even in developed countries in the study of morality, ethics, environment and equity returns fell into scientific advances in nanotechnology to health. Nanotechnology is perhaps not as advanced in the Third World, as in Britain or the United States, but it's just a matter of time before China and India catch up. Developing countries should not wait for the technology to do justice to the doors of their ethical Dell Precision M4400 battery and social implications.


How to maintain and improve Li-ion battery?

What is a lithium-ion? Dell Vostro 2510 Battery,How to increase the life and maintain performance? Is it dangerous? Why recycle it?

Certain point and advice for the most of your Li-Ion battery make Dell Vostro 1720 Battery.On batteries and how to keep it true, I've read and heard so many different versions ... And other urban legends to maraboutage (stories of batteries in the freezer to recharge them ... O_o Especially do not do this with a Li-ion! He does not like heat shock.)I think the public interest (yes, really) To identify a simple and understandable information base and the good and bad practice in the use of our Li-ion batteries Dell Vostro 1520 Battery.

Aside from my personal knowledge, I am inspired largely by the Post about the great CommentCaMarche.net Maker06 and, of course, Wikipedia (like today go?).This content is in a private, family, school available, blah blah (except for a brief'll use for commercial purposes have. " To pump our competitors go elsewhere, as a result of if it's changed!) Attention waste!Before discussing the way to play well with the battery Dell Vostro 1500 Battery, I raise the reader, let me get to the purpose of generosity: the lifetime of your battery,Dell Vostro 1310 Battery ! solely a awfully little proportion of the batteries are placed on the market currently recycled. we are able to all contribute to recycling rates and supply opportunities for players during this sector a wealth of raw material (to be thus low cost, treated thus fascinating, etc.).

Looking for a collector's item by me!

The batteries of all types (alkaline, rechargeable nickel, lead, lithium ...), are dangerous for two reasons:

Physical hazards:

Never try a battery, by repairing, let alone try to "cells" that make up the battery, burning or poisoning also opened very seriously!

Environmental risks:

Do not leave the batteries Dell Vostro 1088N Battery in the trash! Be sure to recycle (all hypermarkets, containers and waste Bricomarché now skimmer.) Become. Where possible, it is important to sort through technology (alkaline or lithium, Ni / MH or Li-ion). It increases the efficiency of the subsidiaries of recycling! In the case of lithium-ion battery recycling to reduce the price of the material because the lithium  Dell Vostro 1015 Battery is recycled rather well compared to previous technologies.

Make the most of its lithium-ion batteries?

Like all batteries, lithium-ion batteries wear over time, nothing can reverse the process. And that's where the rub, you should regularly change their batteries, Dell XPS M1730 Battery making it a cost and environmental footprint.Economically and ecologically as an incentive to make the best use of our Li-ion batteries, trying to increase their service life and maintain performance.

Things not to do:

Most of the time, take care of your battery is not doing what it can hurt. Let the things that really avoid using a Li-ion battery.

No rejection!

A Li-ion battery ,Dell XPS M1330 Battery should never drop below 15% of its maximum load, or lose, durable, high capacity (up to 20% at a time).In modern applications (smartphones, laptops, tablets ...) protects the operating system of the apparatus of the battery by the user on the state of charge and automatically switch off to avoid the camera to a excessive discharge.If your device is "off" due to low battery Dell XPS M1210 Battery, the charger before restarting. It allows the battery without the other shock trying to turn the device to reload.This is especially important advice you've heard the opposite: "A number of regular full discharge for the battery in the fight against the memory effect." This advice is correct, but in the first technology-based nickel  Dell XPS M140 Battery (Ni / Cd and Ni / MH) is based.

For Li-ion discharge is too deep to cause irreparable damage to the battery!

Discharge of the battery deteriorates chemical elements in Li-ion cells. For this reason, a store to be dangerous after a deep discharge. Therefore, an internal circuit can prevent the store to avoid any disruption. The consequences are that the battery,Dell Studio 1737 Battery is unusable.We will see the correct use of the charging / discharging batteries fully adapted to the Li-ion ...

No high temperatures!

The Li-ion batteries will deteriorate by 40 ° C (exact temperature can vary on the exact composition of the battery). It is therefore very important to prevent the battery ,Dell Studio 1558 Battery gets too hot, even for a normal load!When they used the guidelines for lithium-ion batteries contain an electronic circuit load control responds: This module allows both to limit the load on the battery to prevent hot, but also communicate device information on the state of the battery.

There is protection easier and more efficient: a thermal fuse. Above a certain temperature, this component will break the circuit, making it unusable because the battery ,Dell Studio 1555 Battery is discharged that responsibility. It's just another below a low threshold again to secure the circuit itself. This system is expected to reach in any case, the batteries from the critical temperature of 70 ° C, which is not the danger of explosion!May also apply to these safeguards a small common-sense rules: Be sure to charge the cell phone in a ventilated area and not wrapped in a sweater. Put the computer to load on a flat surface for maximum cooling, on the bed ...

No change in temperature!

Temperature is really the Achilles heel of Li-ion batteries Dell Studio 1537 Battery. In addition to the high temperatures are also variations (in temperature), to weaken it.The Li-ion batteries should not be stored in a garage or storage non-temperate, summer and winter to heat our homes not regulated fits them!For all these reasons, a lithium-ion battery will not be prolonged exposure to sunlight. In summer, only a few minutes to temperatures that will permanently damage the battery Dell Studio 1535 Battery to reach!

Things to do:

After spending what to avoid, there are only two good advice for the active maintenance of the battery:

Run a full charge once a month!

Whether you're a serial-mobile or laptop 17 "sits proudly on the desk without moving cycled the battery once a month.

It is very simple:

In normal use the device until the battery Dell Studio 1436 Battery shows less than 20% residual capacity.Switch off your device (to ensure a quick charge will load all the latest cameras power charger / power available for battery)Connect (wait until the battery is green "), the charger and store the end without interruption.That's it! Once complete, you can charge your device in the rule.

Store the charge of Li-ion battery!

When storing a battery Dell Studio 1435 Battery already in use (using the secondary battery, rare, ...) to be taken to be in a dry place at moderate temperatures (20/25 ° C) and sunlight.He said the charge has no impact on the proper storage of batteries!Li-ion subject to gradual self-discharge, but durable, if not in use. The temperature increase of the phenomenon varies.We have seen that deep discharge bad for Li-ion batteries, so you have to store a charge!A condition of overload (100%) before Dell Studio 17 Battery storage is not recommended (although experience, advanced batteries, it is good enough.)

Under ideal conditions, I would recommend the battery to 70% of their maximum capacity before storage in a drawer for over 2 months.

16:01 Publié dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)