The reason that the technology eradicated poverty?

In 2004, like many enthusiasts, Kentaro Toyama for telecentres in India, where for a computer, children learn to computer, a few hours use per month in a language he does not speak because he had found in Retawadi, India. At that time, Kentaro Toyama Microsoft Research computer VGP-BPS13/Q Battery responsible for the initiation of a laboratory in Bangalore. He was also the headquarters of the ICT4D (Information and Communication Technologies for Development), an association for the advancement of information technology and communications (ICT) for development. At this point, promotes Indian Telecentre ICT4D, promoted by external organizations (NGOs, universities, companies) to accelerate the socio-economic growth is promoted with the objectives of profit and nonprofit, the telecentre was social services for community and income for the local businessman who operated the call center.

The hopes of the 2000s: technology, development of solutions?

"Some telecentres have been successful. An operator in South India, the culture of saving okra how a farmer speaks with an expert from the University to give. Another boasted of its sales after the opening of Sony VGP-BPS13computer training center tripled. When headlines were flattering, "Soybean farmers in India to the global village", "The introduction of digital villages, the Indians away," "Farmers like the Kenyans cheer the savior of the Internet potatoes "."

"These stories of great hope for telecentres: Distance learning enables each child a scientist, telemedicine can address the shortcomings of the health system in rural areas of developing citizens, local bypassing corrupt officials ... Ashok Jhunjhunwala, a member of the Science Advisory Indian Prime Minister even suggested that the income was telecentres in rural villages doubled. Agronomist Monkombu Swaminathan, the father of the "green revolution" in India, for what is called a call center set up in each of the 000,640 villages. Other countries followed suit and brought their own national tele-centers. "

"Driven to the excitement of telecentres to spread throughout the rest of ICT4D. Personalities of technology and development in the fire. At the time, Nicholas Negroponte, founder of One Laptop Per Child project (One Laptop Per Child OLPC) project to cheap laptops hp pavilion dv4 battery for poor children, escalated said: "Children in Third World countries need new technologies, especially in the rugged hardware and innovative software." Kofi Annan has publicly supported the project, said Edward Friedman, director of the Center for Technology Management for Global Development, ".. There is an urgent need for information technology in the use of health care in rural southern sub-Saharan Africa to implement "A recent survey by the BBC showed that 79% of 28 000 adults surveyed, agreed, especially in rich countries with the statement that" the Internet access should be a fundamental right of all peoples "."

In fact, success has rarely, fleetingly, distributed ...

However, Kentaro Toyama acknowledges the success of ICT4D are rare, fleeting and sown. A Retawadi, India, the owner of the telecentre barely managed $ 20 of income per month, while hardware costs, electricity, connectivity and maintenance totaled at least $ 100.

"Over a period of five years, I went in about 50 telecentres throughout South Asia and Africa. The vast majority were very similar to Retawadi. Telecentre operators could not live and available services were poor. Most of them have the same fate as the Telecentre Retawadi closed. Shortly after the opening of the telecentre research, although limited in scope and severity, confirmed my observations on the constant under-performance. "

"New technologies for the optimism and exuberance that are often disappointed by the reality," said Kentaro Toyama. Observers scholars have shown why the Telecentre ICT4D initiatives have failed: in most cases, the design is adapted to the context It is incompatible with the local socio-cultural norms, work it into serious consideration the shortcomings of the structure of the existing visual relationships to the local governments on local services to meet the needs of a business model sustainable ...

The penetration of technology is not progress: Technology is a magnifying glass

ICT4D projects carried out in many areas (education, microfinance, agriculture, health) and with different technologies (computers, mobile phones, electronic devices built to order ...). "Depends on each project, the impact of technology from around the intent and ability to manipulate people," said Kentaro Toyama. The success of projects of  computers HP Pavilion dv7 battery  in schools was based on the support of dedicated teachers and administrators. The process of micro-credits for mobile phones with micro-finance organizations are actually worked. ICT4D projects, which have the most success, it is the partner organizations that have made hard work of real development, ICT4D simply assist and support their efforts.

"If I had all I need is to combine the learning of ICT4D: .. Technology - regardless of their form, even if it is brilliant - will increase the capabilities and intentions of people, there is no substitute when you have one based on competent and well-meaning, then what is the appropriate technology to improve their HP 484170-001 Battery capacity and performance at astounding. "In other cases, not the technology, how to turn a difficult situation. The arrival of the Internet in villages is not enough to change it." Technology is a magnifying glass, because their effect is multiplicative, but terms of social change, it does not add. In developed countries there is a tendency for the Internet and other technologies, as seen, necessarily additive, because the contributors to add a positive value. But their contributions positive are subject to the absorptive capacity of users are often absent in the Third World. The technology has a positive influence on the extent to which people are willing and able to use it positively. The challenge of international development, the independence of the potential of poor communities, the ability to work well intentioned, is a scarce resource and technology can not compensate for this deficit. "

The techno-utopia, which are the widespread use of technology solutions designed accordingly to believe that poverty and other social problems, a trend similar to the penetration of technological progress to be made available. OLPC for example, Kentaro Toyama attack, promotes his computer, based on self-learning and pays little attention to education, the reality of the faculty, programs or school systems in which it is used. "The name of the OLPC is based on currently available technology-based core, while some of us prefer to be trained on the  Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery for his own children." This myth of the scaling of technology is also the religion of the telecentre proponents, who believe the arrival of the Internet in the villages, it is sufficient to transform them. And the same myth is still with the phone, when the New York Times as "the phone, poverty in the world to end?" The statement that "the threat of the proliferation of mobile phones are potentially revolutionary."

The techno-utopia is easier to believe

"Revolutionary! The myth of the scale is interesting because it is easier to achieve than it is because of changes in social behavior and human resource capacity. To speak, in other words, it is much less painful for hundreds of thousands of computers that offer a real education Buy hundreds of thousands of children. It is easier to manage a health hotline to convince text messages to people in the water before cooking. It is easier for an application that people know where they can buy drugs, as to convince them that the writing of the drug is good support for their health, it seems clear that the promise of the scale is an illusion, but its promoters often rely on this argument whether consciously or unconsciously -. -. their solutions "Promoting Estimates of annual expenditure for technology development are hard to find, but they range from several tens to several hundreds of millions of billions of dollars over estimated Kentaro Toyama. The development cost of the OLPC is about half the budget, that India is dedicated to the education of its students, an amount mostly spent on teacher salaries. But what sense can the cost of a computer, while 0.5 million will be used to provide medication to reduce the incidence of lead parasites, diseases, and a year and a school population of 25%?

Supporters of the development of technology tend to push for technology funding. "If OLPC claims to be, an educational project, more than a technology project at the same time, it is expected that governments spend $ 1-100000000 laptop," said Kentaro Toyama. Hamadoun Toure, Secretary General of the International Telecommunication Union reported that "governments should consider the Internet as a basic infrastructure such as roads, waste treatment and water supply." "But in terms of poverty extreme, to invest in providing broad access to the downfall of the Internet necessarily in the order of spending on sanitation and transport to competition, "recalls the strength of common sense Kentaro Toyama.

"For the technology could work in any way, if the technology is more for the poor, less educated, it's for the rich and powerful well-trained, but the opposite occurs. The technique helps the rich get richer while they do something for the poor, so that the gap between the haves and have-nots. "

Why digging technology makes the gap between rich and poor?

Technology widens the gap between rich and poor through three mechanisms explained Kentaro Toyama:

The different approach: Technology is always accessible to the rich and powerful. It costs money, acquisition, operation, maintenance and update. And the digital divide exists, even if the technology is fully funded. For example, most public libraries in the United States offer free access to the Internet, but the poorest less free time to visit them and harder to master, as to meet the costs of transport, in particular, he argues . In addition to the social barriers: Many rural telecentres in developing countries are not available, the less privileged in their villages because of the social order, the problems of caste, tribe or gender.

Besides the material tends to be for the rich content and software that are designed, written for people with disposable income. Although the products seem to be free, such as televisions, they are often advertisers, helps consumers more disposable income. The result is that the poor are further disadvantaged. India has more than twenty languages ​​nationally recognized, however, almost all software used in the English language, making it difficult for people to read and write in their local languages, dealing with computers. And this trend is self-reinforcing itself ". If a technology is not for someone not to buy have designed, and when not to buy, Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery manufacturers do not develop good design "

It is possible to fight against these different access, said Kentaro Toyama, but how the telecentre projects in action. "But are progressive practices in technology is not very effective on their own because of the differences, besides the equipment can not be undone. Playing field, they do not relate to underlying problems, inequalities between the players themselves. "

Different social groups, even if the difference in access to technology by the universal diffusion of technology, the differential capacity in the areas of education, social skills and social ties are met, it is. Using the same technology, after his studies, his confidence in himself, his social environment, organizational Sony VGP-BPS9/b Battery capacity ... Two people are not the same advantages of shooting in the same technology. "With a limited capacity in terms of literacy, education, social, political influence, the value of the technology itself is limited."

A third mechanism contributes to the widening gap between the privileged and the excluded: In order to use the difference. To find out what people want with the technology they have access? "Many of us were surprised to learn that the poor are in no hurry online education, care practices, or develop job skills. Instead, they are technology, intended primarily for entertainment. Telecentres many people in videos on YouTube Upload expert, but use them as an accounting software or access to a language course. Even in developed countries have the technology, the first game and entertainment. And this trend is even more pronounced among people with low self-confidence and the knowledge of their growing impotence.

"I do not blame the victim. None of these mechanisms is not the absence of one of those who leave the poor and uneducated. Whether it is to blame, but the historical circumstances, social structures, and the refusal of rich countries, in a large - invest in the quality of universal education is indeed a good reason to value education in the fact that 'it creates the desire and ability, the modern tools -. One more reason to focus on the development of human potential, rather than trying to compensate for the limitations of technology. "

This leads to technical progress?

North America, Western Europe, Japan and some other blessed reached its economic status of economic power, long before digital technology. Its peak of production and consumption of Dell Studio 1537 Battery information technology can do more than the result of economic progress, can be interpreted as a primary cause, said Kentaro Toyama.

Previous requests for information and communication in developing countries have not made directly to the socio-economic progress, as shown in the example of television. Television has certainly positive effects: the economist Robert Jensen and Emily Oster has shown (pdf) How TV has developed in urban areas from rural social settings Pierce Indian women .. A nonprofit organization, the Population Media Center, explicitly, this principle applies to birth rates and influence the practice of health care in developing countries by the soap with positive social messages. While it is encouraging to note Kentaro Toyama. But the influence of television on development to term expectations so far away.

In 60 years, Wilbur Schramm, the father of Communication Studies and co-founder of the department of communication at Stanford, described in the Information and National Development, hopes that television accounted for Education and Development. It should be noted that these hopes have not materialized. "Whatever the potential of television, it failed to promote large-scale development, even if it has spread everywhere", whether in developed countries than in developing countries.

"My goal is not to say that technology is useless. To the extent we are willing and able to develop the technology for the positive, it has a positive effect. For example, Digital Green (DG), one of the most successful projects in ICT4D, I supervised at Microsoft Research encourages the use of videos to teach small farmers how to have better agricultural practices. When it comes to persuading farmers to adopt best practices, DG is ten times more profitable than conventional farming. "

"But the value of technology is subject to the motivations and Sony VGP-BPS18 Battery capacities of organizations seeking to use" remember Kentaro Toyama, "the villagers must be organized, the content must be produced and teachers must be trained." The limiting factor in the spread of the impact of DG, such is not based on the number of cameras that organizers can buy or how many videos they can produce, but on how many groups have good initial practice. If the initial groups are few, the institutional capacity building is the most difficult. In other words, "the diffusion of technology is easy but to maintain the rights and organizations that have made the proper use is critical."

After the computer, the laptop?

"Technology is only a magnifying glass, not only in development elsewhere. No one thinks that we can turn a losing business simply by injecting new computers, but well-managed companies can benefit, for example, computerized supply chain. A gun in good hands protects citizens and maintaining peace in the wrong hands, it kills and oppresses. modern industrial technology increases our ability to produce, but also amplifies our desire to consume. On a planet with limited resources, it may also sign our ruin. Dell Latitude 2110 Battery History also shows that the technology of democracy can be easily diverted in the absence of civic education: if they are too confident, or if they are not willing and able to implement the necessary checks and balances Computing, weapons, factories and democracy are powerful tools, but the. forces that determine how they are used at the end are human beings. "

This seems obvious, but it is forgotten in the rush to scale, said Kentaro Toyama. Currently, the international development community through a love affair with the mobile phone. The work of Robert Jensen and Jenny C. Aker show that mobile phones can eliminate certain types of information inefficiencies in the Compaq Presario CQ61 markets of the developing world (see for example: The impact of mobile telephony on the functioning of markets in sub-Saharan Africa (PDF).). Encouraged by this discovery and the high penetration of mobile telephony, foundations and institutions for the development have formed working groups and to encourage the development of entire departments dedicated to mobile. In these circles, it is not possible to discuss microfinance and health not to mention the mobile.

"The technology lens, however, suggests that it is a unilateral vision of mobile telephony. For it is not only the intentions of production that are amplified by the mobile phone. When a rickshaw puller who earns a dollar a day pays his operator for the privilege to change the tone, it generated a net benefit to himself or to society? "Kathleen Diga, University of KwaZulu Natal found that some households in Uganda has given priority to the talk time on mobile rather than nutrition or the purchase of drinking water (see the pdf of the paper.). Sociologist Jenna Burrell noted that mobile phones exacerbate relations of domination between the sexes: men using mobile phones as tools of sexual exchange.

While the mobile phone has become the most widespread technology electronics, watching television and radio, with 4.5 billion active accounts affecting 80% of the world, one might think that high indicate that there is no digital divide for real-time communications. Yet studies show that non-Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS battery users are mostly poor, single women and men "politically dumb," concludes Kentaro Toyama. "However, if the spread of mobile phones is enough to make poverty history, we will not soon know," quips researcher. "But if not, when will we see again our hopes on the gadget of the brand new future that we propose in the developing world?"



BATTERIES FOR EV: The CEA is a global challenge

"In one year, the CEA left the laboratory pre-industrial revolution, so that its platform and its employees," said Mattera Florence, responsible for the transport of the CEA.Dedicated to Grenoble, over € 20 million investment, including the extension of a research platform for the production of a new generation of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles - has done since September 2009.

Hundreds of scientists for the Department of Transportation hired 200 engineers working today. ECA and began a partnership with Renault for Flins battery technology (Yvelines) to improve.

Research Focus

Research on electric SONY VGP-BPS13 batteries is one of the "priority sectors" of the CEA, which fell to the emergence of a market in all major global manufacturers meet, said the director of the CEA in Grenoble, Jean Therme. But three years ago, CEA, on drums for a decade about to leave this area of ​​research by the lack of opportunities in the industry, he said.

"Manufacturers may not have the importance of this activity are seen. And then there was the Grenelle Environment "in 2007, which provided" the development of this important industrial sector, after the bath.

The committee hopes to one day compete with the Asians, with its experience in mobile phone batteries, "are difficult in the market for batteries for electric vehicles," admits Ms. Mattera.

"Europeans have a deck of cards. The battle for the first generation of batteries, "a range of 150 kilometers," not lost, "he said.

Iron-Phosphate batteries

The position of CEA as the manufacture of wholesale batteries based on iron phosphate, a material that is presented is based as the face of competitive and secure Asia-oriented manganese.

Use a great job on the possibilities of technology to reduce costs and increase reliability has been done, the outlook for the year 2015 to produce the batteries for a range of 300 km for a pure electric car, says Mattera.

Also Chambery, engineers from CEA, the National Institute of solar energy, batteries subjected to all kinds according to the extreme conditions (cold, heat) and practice "post-mortem evidence of" life expectancy and understanding of recycling.

Electric Car: The Challenges of batteries

What VET studies Energies new batteries?

V-MS: We are working on two batteries, a lot of energy, such as nickel-metal hydride or lithium-ion battery, the power of money supercapacitors. These studies are hybrids of the demonstrator project and prototype electric vehicles conducted to test and validate technologies.

Our goal is twofold: models and electrochemical phenomena in thermal batteries that can be integrated into simulation platforms, the size of the vehicle architecture, and improving the diagnosis of the current state of the battery to describe development.

Why should properly assess the health and state of charge of batteries?

V-MS: in hybrid vehicles, battery storage provides a reversible, intermittent and energy. To optimize the management, it is important to know, accurately, and at any time, depending on battery condition, "the state of charge", and the advantages of creating a way for maximum " health "of the actual Pavilion DV4 battery is his life. But today it is difficult in real time a reliable estimate of the two parameters. This leads to large safety margins for producers, reducing the range of batteries do. If the integrated monitoring of these parameters (BMS) was correct, it would be possible to run longer, reducing the size of the battery - which is now too big - to change less often, which increases costs.

You have the results in this area?

V-SM: In-house, in the context of the ALIDISSI (National Research Agency) NRA we conducted in 2008-2009 with the CEA, CNRS and the living company, we have a method for diagnosing board developed the electrical impedance. It involves applying a current to the battery and the resulting voltage to increase the amount is a cost accuracy, reliability, and health. Already validated in the laboratory, this work would soon lead to a prototype sensor.

Another problem is the aging of batteries ...

J-B: Yes. Let us examine this phenomenon in the context of the ANR research. This is on a dynamometer to simulate the aging of HP 484170-001 batteries for hybrid vehicles, the reproduction of an accelerated phase of activity, especially the acceleration and braking of the vehicle. Thus, these data and models for predicting lifetime to incorporate these elements in real operating conditions. We also have phases where immobilization of the battery is broken.

Give examples of projects, demonstration ...

V-MS: The bottom of the demonstration project ELLISUP ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Management Agency), followed by Irisbus Iveco, for example, in 2012, is a prototype of 12 meters to reach all electric buses. We offer a variety of ways: characterization of cells of the battery thermal modeling of the package and the sizing of the cooling system and finally the development of control algorithms.

JB: We work from the project HYDOLE PSA Peugeot Citroën. This vehicle is designed to operate in electric during the week, when the drivers to work, but uses heat stroke or other hybrid, especially on weekends. With the CEA and EDF, we compare different battery technologies currently are being tested on the test beds for different operating systems and aging.

Clould Tags:HP DV4 battery,wholesale batteries



Start with a 3D notebook market?

When the handset is compatible with PC SONY VGP-BPL9 manufacturers to develop 3D products, analysts moderately enthusiastic. These gadgets are mostly with the players (players) is important to prevent the spread of material limitations tartalominoseg 3D and had high prices. (The basis of the above information tererzekeltetes cikkünkbol 3D.)

In recent months, the best known manufacturers of 3D notebooks are used and provide coverage for their sizes widescreen laptop 15.6 to 17.3 inches. Asus, Lenovo and Toshiba,  toshiba satellite a100, 3D is not cheap, the cheapest is $ 2100, but the good 3-D glasses for a customer with whom it is possible to control the depth of 3D content. To discourage the desire to experience multimedia users looking for new products.

Analysts say that despite the limited other attractive models 3D-acceptance is to be expected, even with people who are already looking for the latest hardware. The high price and a very limited amount of 3D content, consumer confidence weakens.

New Age or just a "Ficsor"?

The SONY VGP-BPL13 laptop manufacturers try to sell the 3D technology as a management PC, with a whole new way, a new era - said Roger Kay, president of consultancy Endpoint Technologies Associates. But players are not interested because they are usually the first to receive the latest hardware for a richer experience. "Others will wait for enough interesting content is not available for them" - said Kay.

John Jacobs, researchers at DisplaySearch notebook market realized that they felt that the smaller models to screen size, even a player that interests you, then. - "If the goal is to be able to play more in the world of sight, then the largest screen possible for you" want to buy - says Jacobs.

Without Reeves, laptops SONY VGP-BPS13 and PCs in the sale of Falcon Northwest CEO, said he did not leglelkesebbeknek who want the latest version. Reeves is no significant additional costs associated with a 3D view, as a buyer willing to pay a problem laptopert passionate. Falcon Northwest is demanding goal, the cheapest laptop costs $ 1500 model, the performance of powerful desktop for $ 4,000 to avoid.

Reeves is a very optimistic attitude towards clients - "Even if you do not use very often, I do not see why anyone would not want 3D capabilities, such as games or enjoy the movie These are the serious buyers that the láncostul portable clock. Away. "

Detroit theater enthusiasts - slow diffusion

A big fan, Amanda Farouge about $ 1000 for the price seems reasonable for a label 3D display. Usually MMO (Massive Multiplayer Online) game and have fun shooting, is convinced that 3D interactivity for the game "I think the 3D depth to the game, was especially FPS (First Person Shooter) and the action-adventure genre intact, "- said Farouge, the publisher of the game and play areas webdizajner web pages.

For now, however, the widespread adoption of 3D display - there are only limited data from DisplaySearch - including monitors and laptops. The research firm predicts that the market this year has sold 179,000 units are expected to reach 217.8 million, while a standard (non 3D) SONY VGP-BPS8 laptop screens are then sold. Sales of notebook 3D 2011 will be achieved by a number of pieces, 611,000 in 2012, but 1.7 million is expected, which is still a small and then the whole market.

Analysts said companies will palettajukon 3D models yet, but would be the 3D content consumers to produce much more expensive. Even the players are not all by new technologies, gamers and game designers Gina trains affected, to wait, for example, to buy a laptop HP 484170-001  in 3D ", while a good support is added, and have as many toy manufacturers and media companies behind us being fed. "Gina trains role elmelyedos friendly and affectionate, and his interest in the people he meets an attractive 3D game. Others are not as essential for stereoscopic vision.

Games and films

For the studies and content providers such as ESPN, you see the profit potential in 3D, but is still in film and television, embraced the idea of ​​theater. The game shows at E3, recent reports that focus the 3D game development on consoles. Nintendo introduced the 3DS is a portable gaming device around, while Sony has a 3D game for the PlayStation 3

Some SONY VGP-BPS13/Q PC game developers have also announced new games. The Crytek promised that the PC version of Crysis 2 will be available in 3D, EA will be displayed. It is true that the kit manufacturer Nvidia, the property can be said that we have around 100 + games.

PC maker in the film industry to adapt are interested, are designed laptops to be used for playback of 3D movies. The NVIDIA G53 offers to play G73JW Asus and Toshiba Dynabook TX/98MBL Blu-ray 3D Album. The new Lenovo IdeaPad Y560d is another technology that can play Blu-ray 3D, but is capable of 2D content can be converted terhatasuva films.

Samsung says the online game 3D films are shown in the last quarter of the year, and YouTube have begun experimenting with 3D content. SONY VGP-BPS10 NVIDIA 3D video streaming of live product demonstration at the Microsoft Silverlight technology in video player. Most people experience with both platforms, and will likely be used for stereoscopic viewing.

Compatibility and bandwidth

Offer the cheaper, the Dell Studio 1537 Battery customer satisfaction is one of the more 3D TVs, said Stephen Baker, an analyst at NPD Group, the industry leader. To monitor (Panasonic 3D cinema in our review here), a TV at the same time more people, while the laptop is simply a 3D experience. "We do not expect many people to see 3D movies on a laptop" - says Baker.

Analysts point out that the transfer of 3D quality of the contents in a bandwidth greater than normal. This could limit the 3D movies and 3D games on-line options of the transmission line for the house. It is also not accelerate the spread of the purposes to serve termozizas. Not only annoying, but - at least at the hardware level - the compatibility of all that, RealD Xpand and NVIDIA differently structured active and passive polarized SONY VGP-BPS22 glasses LCD screen that can be used in any TV. (Note that the 3D Full HD Blu-ray and a variety of hardware implementations of today there is a conflict is to play the system all the albums in 3D Blu-ray.) If, then, is a manufacturer of consumer electronics and technology for is selected, no additional leave, it will be received, but also agree, for something, because the chance to play the movie.

In any case, we need somewhere in the Middle 3D models start of the new notebooks, all good ways to improve the knowledge about technologies, but also a variety of contents are distributed in preparation.