01/09/2011

what's the view of nanotechnology in public point

"As technologies converge in the 21 st century, humanity finally reaches them, a state of world peace, universal prosperity and progress to a higher level of compassion and service."

They are strong words on the official acer as07a51 battery website of the United States in June 2002 launched a comprehensive interdisciplinary, full of federal funds. This is known as the convergence of technologies, but is better known by the acronym NBIC, which means that the convergence between nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science [63]. This is the first of the four groups of science and technology, nanotechnology, which is the spearhead.

The famous American physicist Richard Feynman, who could be the father of the project on nanotechnology at the conference will be: "There is plenty of room below," in 1959 at the California Institute of Dell XPS M1330 battery Technology, Feynman [64] described, that they imagined believe to be available soon on the manipulation of matter on a human scale of the molecule, atom by atom-operation. The configuration of the nanoscale has been created for life.

With the famous "nano world" engineering works now in nanometers (one billionth of a meter), the elements certainly very small in relation to objects of everyday life (for example, 30 000 times smaller than a human hair), but much larger of the objects observed large particle accelerators. The increased SONY VGP-BPS13 battery capacity for the production and manipulation of objects microns (millionths of a meter) in nanometers, opening up prospects very unique among major potential applications.

Prior to publication, and identify applications and ethical issues associated with this approach, we wonder about the specificity of this scientific field, which is often presented as radically new. These are actually two modes of operation after the nano-world, which today represent a true innovation:

A first method is to functions "milli" or "micro" to reduce to the nanoscale, which is often cited example, computer chips, whose size is always the result of improved production technology of silicon reduced.

Another method is to go from very small to small. These are procedures that atoms and molecules to create new complex nanosystems to manipulate nature. This SONY VGP-BPS2 battery approach can be made visible to a millionth of a millimeter through the creation and development of tools and the manipulation of matter on this scale. This method is based on the creation of new tools: atomic force microscopes through tunnels, the electronic optical tweezers to manipulate high-resolution or matter atom by atom.

Finally, dell inspiron 1300 battery nanotechnology opens up new opportunities created by other generic technologies, such as biotechnology and information technologies converge with cognitive science. As such, these new applications of nanotechnology, particularly in the field of medical informatics and new materials with new services. Political economy, note that the complexity of the development of nanotechnology, and use only by tech-heavy industrial structures, a further Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery increase in the concentration of large industrial groups, particularly patents.

Nanotechnology is undoubtedly one of the wave technology, such as synthetic biology, will determine our future.

I. application areas of nanotechnology

The focus of applications that can run are:

In health, many areas could be brought to current and future situation in the field of medicine, in particular diagnostic and therapeutic tools, are affected more applications both in vitro and in vivo are possible:

The behavior of the functional markers of non-invasive imaging (nontraumatic)

Design of new drugs that contain nanomaterials and nanosystems,

The administration of drugs and of new pharmacological doses appear to be less toxic to his favorite target.

In the food sector, in the absence of mandatory labeling of a public debate and without rules, products with nanotechnology in the process of "contamination" of the food chain. These nanoparticles, nanocapsules and nano-emulsions in agricultural pesticides in food packaging and food materials, food and storage containers. The Friends of the Earth has identified 106 of these products today, but it seems certain that this is only a small proportion of Asus Eee PC battery marketed products.

However, there is no specific regulation for nanotechnology, and no proof is necessary first of nanomaterials in food packaging and agricultural products are used.

In general, nanotechnology is also threatening the sustainable development of agriculture and nutrition. It is feared that could improve the control of the agricultural and food systems of large corporations. This would lead to a reduction of the SONY battery VGP-BPL13 power of farmers for on-site food production, as in the case of GMOs.

Other areas

Cosmetics:

For several years the cosmetic industry uses nanotechnology and nanomaterials in their products. Because of their small size, nanomaterials are able to develop new physical and chemical properties. Nanoscale components Dell XPS M1530 battery(organic nanoparticles, metal oxides TiO2 and ZnO) may also invest in other formulations of cosmetics, creams, powders, perfumes, shampoos, nail polish, lipstick, toothpaste, etc. are installed.

As the mention of nanomaterials in the labeling is not required, to this day is very difficult to be an exhaustive list of cosmetic products that contain them. According to the Institute of Woodrow Wilson, the identified products containing nanomaterials, there was a quarantine in the cosmetics market, the nanoparticles may be present.

Packing:

Nanomaterials can also be incorporated in packaging to act on the traceability of conservation, recycling and eating. These nano-chips embedded in the Dell Vostro A840 battery package can follow the evolution of food microbiology in their lives and contribute to their health surveillance. Deposit in the nanolayers film can protect against moisture.

Other materials:

Microstructures in new materials have been developed. At this scale can alter the physical and chemical properties of materials. For example, carbon nanotubes sets of carbon atoms in the form of tubes with a diameter of 200-100 nanometers and a length of one micron. Very lightweight and shock resistant, while being very flexible, which can behave like a metal, but also as a semiconductor. They have something mechanical, optical or chemical special. This material is thus a hundred times stronger and six times lighter than steel and Dell Studio 1735 battery has a thermal conductivity comparable to diamond.

New types of fabrics, paintings, self-cleaning window coatings, wear-resistant solar cells and electronic components, products are available on the market.

Finally, about 2000 nanoparticles are already commercially available and there is a presence in more than 600 products. Nanomaterials in consumer products covered are usually organized in a matrix or solid or liquid.

Health Hazards II identified

In this new area, many health risks can develop. The main Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS battery objectives are the application and release of the product during manufacture, use or disposal, the nanoparticles can (summary of the different atoms or chemical compounds). Because of their small size nanoparticles can reach the smallest structures of the lungs, called alveoli. This is where you can breath gas exchange between the air that we and the blood. You can have the effect of nanoparticles in this vital system, are still poorly understood. They seem to be inflammatory reactions,Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS battery and also changes in the lung tissue similar to silicosis (a disease caused by exposure to silica dust) or asbestosis (asbestos) due, followed by the particle causes of this material. Current knowledge on the subject, obtained from animal studies, which cover a very small number of nanoparticles (eg, carbon and titanium oxide). Studies in cell cultures have shown that nanoparticles can be absorbed easily and can, depending on their chemical composition, without adverse effects on these cells. HP Pavilion DV5000 battery Studies are also in the absorption of nanoparticles through the skin for the day done, the knowledge gained in this area be excluded a priori the absorption of healthy skin. Other studies have shown that nanoparticles of polystyrene and titanium oxide has been through the digestive tract and then won the liver.

III. Ethical issues

These new applications are many ethical issues.

These include:

The issue of traceability: when the nanoparticles to escape because of its size, the normal means of discovery would not be prudent for smuggling into the environment and the human body. We already live in a world where nano materials in quantity, but the new release to the atmosphere of non-biodegradable nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, could be a risk than exposure to asbestos, the lack of adequate tools for measuring the nanoscale, of course, makingDell Vostro 1510 battery detection more difficult.

The problem of biological effects and degradability: Not known at the time the possible effects of the drug nanocarriers of the physiological mechanisms of the body, including passage through biological barriers such as the barrier between blood and brain. Low biodegradability can also increase or increase the pollution and toxicity in humans.

The question of a possible "new features" of the material dell inspiron 1300 battery transported in the nanometer range, the mass / area, even more important for complex molecular systems in nanoscale materials, which may be older, have unknown consequences in relation to biological and chemical reactivity , and currently there are no known side effects of possible changes in the behavior of matter. The radioactivity is an example of the unpredictability of the effects of changes in the behavior of the raw materials are convinced that the knowledge of its effect in the last minute. The discovery of these "news" of radioactive material, which is traceable and had discovered that he could not support or protect.

Control over the dell inspiron 1564 battery development of nanotechnology: the global academic and industrial efforts in nanoscience and nanotechnology is estimated at $ 10500000000, according to the "assessment of the nanotechnology market Realastic" BCC Research report, published in July 2006. $ 4600000000 to public spending, the contribution of the United States about 35% (or about $ 1.6 billion), with a similar proportion of Asia, a contribution of just under 28% in Europe (1.3 million dollars ) and only 2% of the rest of the world. United States, the level of public spending in nanotechnology is now a year of almost a billion dollars, making it the largest Dell Vostro A840 battery scientific project with public funds from the first Apollo program. The Defense Department receives the majority of the budget of the United States government iPod nano. At least 35 countries have a national nanotechnology research.

Almost all companies among the 500 world premieres to invest in research and development in nanotechnology, accompanied by hundreds of small start-ups.

Around the world in 2006, was published as a $ 10.5 billion for research and development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, have been only $ 40 million for research on possible side effects. Dedicated in other words, only 0.4% of global spending on research risks, including health.

At the moment we can only establish the lack of enthusiasm of biologists, toxicologists, epidemiologists and environmentalists on these issues may be of a serious health problem has become.

The race for patents for nanotechnology products and processes, such as what happened, biotechnology can monopolies on the basic elements that lead

the origin of the natural world as a whole. If current trends continue, nanotechnology will continue to concentrate economic power in the hands of multinationals.

We are witnessing the same phenomenon, as the beginning of nuclear power and GM virtually no public debate.

IV Recommendations

The "nano" ingredients for at least seems explosive. But décelons, the sign of a protest in the history of the company.

Today, only scientists, environmental organizations and associations, the role of HP Pavilion DV7 informants (ETC in Canada, "parts and labor" in Grenoble, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth) is played. There is an urgent need for national and local joint committees in which researchers, entrepreneurs, politicians and civil society come together. It 'important to have opted for a positive message of life and avoid the company to form a discourse of anxiety. Above all, we need the ecological and social success for all citizens to join.

It seems so urgent that sufficient information on the properties of nanoscale systems feared that may be able to penetrate biological barriers, particularly between the blood and the cross of the brain, and is currently limited or non-biodegradable, which are outside therapeutic indications of important consequences for our health needs. Also, is mainly to provide all the necessary HP Pavilion DV3 measures to protect workers handling nanomaterials, and the containment of the study sites and production of nanomaterials. Priority will also look for adverse effects in studies on the toxicity of low doses of those most at risk, including workers in contact with nanomaterials that could have exposed, despite the assurances, as a precaution, pregnant women should be excluded from these positions. Monitoring of fetuses and infants should be legally at risk of occupational exposure and accidental may be required. HP Pavilion DV3000 battery Research in animals from the effects of nanoparticles must be strongly developed nanomaterials, but not strictly medical (eg, nano cosmetics).

At present, the setting in the security structure to control these new products. Therefore, you must:

Committees in the context of the hygiene and occupational health and safety "rather than requiring each laboratory, the research team and place of production, written guides to good practice and procedures for monitoring the implementation of special protection and control of personal research and industrial products at the nanoscale;

Promote networks of information agencies: AFSSAPS biomedical, AFSA, and the Institute of Public Health. More attention should be paid to the HP Mini 1000 battery principles involved, how to pay respect for privacy, informed consent for the administration or exposure to nanoparticles again, equal access to these innovations, the protection of persons. This is a database of health. In these organisms, is also to identify conflicts of interest so as to greatly reduce and possibly eliminate;require manufacturers to provide information and a product intentionally produced nanoparticles visible so that the consumer may be able to refuse to use the mark;the Asus Eee PC 701 battery establishment of an effective public information and society through the organization of public debates in itself contradictory and decentralized regional units and lead to public documents, supplemented by the reactions of scientists and industrialists, questions, hopes and fears expressed in these debates.

Conclusion:

This is not out of nanotechnology in question, or to demonstrate a major anti-science and scientism. The problem of nanomaterials is identical to that of GMOs: the short-term interests of the sector is vital to protect the citizens and the environment. And so it sold the first safety studies required. Liability policy, at this point SONY VGP-BPS9 B battery is remarkable, and the applicable regulations and laws wholly inadequate to the peculiarities of nanomaterials (for example, are in the REACH regulation, which, thanks to its small tonnage) is. However, moving from political pressures is critical citizens, not more, compared with GM. The problems, which are made using nanotechnology too serious to rely solely on the services sector in order to solve them.

 

 

 

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