Will hydrogen be a fuel in the coming future?

Discovered by Cavendish, is the "hydrogen", the French version of Lavoisier. He found that when approaching a lighted candle near a pipeline that causes the appearance of the flame and combustion gases causes the formation of water on the walls of the sample. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier Asus Eee PC battery decided to call this hydrogen gas, from the greek water "hydro" and "gen" (producer, creator).

Although there are many in the world, there is a natural state is not with other atoms (C, O), such as water or methane (natural gas) is connected. And 'therefore necessary to produce or electrolysis of water, is the reform of the oil or algae ...

The problem, if it is a matter of hydrogen or, more generally,Asus Eee PC 901 battery  is the future / fuel ratio, which sails between optimistic and pessimistic a hard heavy. And fuel cells, hydrogen fascinating. And 'interesting because:

- Frequency - at least in the form of water,

- Ability to solve environmental problems (greenhouse effect) has been the combustion of hydrogen with oxygen produces only water,

- Reduce reliance on fossil fuels and the limited availability of them (do not produce hydrogen from natural gas ..)

It could be the key to the use of renewable energy, particularly solar and wind, in order to store this energy in a chemical form for later use. Hydrogen seems to be a "clean" fuel.

A few dream of a "hydrogen economy, while" in which hydrogen will replace traditional fossil fuels, and it would be an important source of energy production. Hydrogen is certainly a great variety of applications in the speech of petrochemical, food, electronics, glass, air and space, but not the expansion of transportation or Asus Eee PC 1201N battery electricity, the supply of computers and other PDAs ..

But this dream is reality?

An increase utilisition hydrogen requires a lot of problems can be solved:

- The first production, because hydrogen is currently produced, mainly by reforming of natural gas. But the natural gas resources, while important,Asus Eee PC 900 battery  are not unlimited, and the use of natural gas does nothing to solve the problem of CO2 emissions.

- Create the inherited infrastructure of production, but also the transport, storage, distribution, ... This requires that the technical problems are solved and this solution economically and ecologically sustainable.

Finally, there is the eternal problem of eggs and chicken. Which comes first: hydrogen or batteries? The structure and hydrogen needed for the operation of investment demand in a relevant market, Compaq Presario CQ70  battery and the batteries are better with hydrogen.

And 'in every case, a transition period, technological advances, the political will on the part of officials, an attempt by the oil industry and acceptance by consumers to accept. In all cases require the technology or technologies related to hydrogen can be related to energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in order to win.

End of 2008: Where is it?

Politically, many associations, research programs and obligations, and measures to facilitate the development of hydrogen vehicles.

In October 2007 the European Commission adopted two proposals for the development of hydrogen technologies provide. The Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) on fuel cells and hydrogen are: There is an integrated program of research, technological development and demonstration, in collaboration with industry. The program must implement the age of 6 years, an EU contribution of € 470,000,000 is based, HP Pavilion DV5000 battery as well as a similar contribution in the field. ITC aims to accelerate the commercial development of hydrogen over the next ten years. The Commission also aims to facilitate the market entry of hydrogen vehicles, to facilitate their reception. In fact, in September 2008 the European Parliament adopted a regulation on European standards for the registration of vehicles powered by hydrogen. This will be the development of these cars,HP Mini 1000 battery while a more detailed framework for the producer.

United States, President Bush announced in 2003 to develop a $ 1.3 million for research on hydrogen-related technologies. The project is funded by the Department of Energy manages a budget of about $ 200 million a year since then. Some HP HSTNN-DB72 battery states are more advanced than others, like California, where they accumulate projects.

Commitment and support for hydrogen differ from country to country, depending on the results of these studies are the individual decisions of this brand to be like turning the hydrogen in Iceland to Norway, which began in 2004, the project terms of the independent island of energy generated from hydrogen production by hydrolysis of electricity from wind turbines. Denmark HP Pavilion DV5 battery has also to be considered in the beginning, hydrogen generated by wind turbines.

Have been used in applications, in particular cars. In 2008, Honda plans to lease the individual of 200 hydrogen vehicles, the FCX Clarity, California and Japan over the next three years. Stations may use the Shell and other companies. Progress is made in respect of the autonomy given a big problem with service stations limited. The following Chevrolet, GM has traveled 480 km on one tank of gas in 2007. Thirty of Ford vehicles will be tested for professionals in the United States since 2005, but also Canada and Europe. The contract, initially for three years could be extended until 2010. F-Daimler Chrysler vehicles in circulation in Europe and the United States. Since 2003 hydrogen buses begin the streets of Europe since 2003, which was distributed to the creation of hydrogen filling stations in Europe: The Reykjavik already been installed at the end of April 2003,Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS batteryfollowed by another Barcelona, ​​Hamburg and United States (Washington, California) and Japan.

In order to evaluate the progress and the attention for hydrogen, it is interesting, the show car, presented in the following terms of research and prototyping.

In 2007, BMW presented the BMW Hydrogen 7 luxury sedan of an operating system with both petrol and hydrogen. Volkswagen introduced the Space Up hydrogen, a hybrid battery / hydrogen Toshiba Satellite A100 battery in Los Angeles. Fiat Panda Aria has launched a prototype version with a natural gas doped with hydrogen. Far from being a vehicle of pure hydrogen, but the path to reduce emissions. Some concept cars of the type of Italdesign VAD.HO were also presented.

In 2005 the Geneva Motor Show in Detroit and Frankfurt, hydrogen vehicles are still the focus of attention, even though hybrids are hot right now and steal the show as well. We have yet to see the new prototypes: Daimler introduced its zero-emissions vehicle based on a Class B (instead of the F-Cell vehicles) as a result of General Motors with a battery and a lithium ion battery, Dell Studio 1537 battery ,Ford Focus C Max-combustion engine of a hydrogen engine, the Audi A2, H2, Michelin Hy-Light prototype, the concept car Mitsubishi Nessie.

The Paris Motor Show (October 2004) BMW H2R prototype was introduced with a hydrogen combustion engine, a Peugeot quad, cottage cheese with hydrogen. It 'was a step above the Auto Show in Paris (October 2002), where they were introduced several prototypes of hydrogen vehicles: GM Hy-Wire, red for fire vehicles H2O PSA, Dell Studio 17 battery and even motorcycle and a bicycle.

General information on hydrogen

Hydrogen (actually hydrogen) is an odorless, colorless, very easily (by plane) and is composed of two atoms of hydrogen. Their general properties of the table below.

Energy Power

Hydrogen has a high gravimetric energy content: Oil 120 MJ / kg (45 MJ / kg), methanol (20 MJ / kg) and gas (50 MJ / kg) were compared. The gas is also lighter (2016 g / mol H2), as a low volume: 10.8 MJ/m3 face with methanol (16 MJ/m3), natural gas (39.77 MJ / m 3). This represents a problem for storage and transportation: If the use of hydrogen in a vehicle or a tube of public transport, which is a truck, the apparent density that matters. The volumetric Dell Studio 1735 battery energy density of H2 is interesting that a liquid or compressed (700 bar).

The safety aspects of

The hydrogen reacts with oxygen, releasing water and heat (290 kJ / mol H2). The combustion of hydrogen in air, no formation of carbon-sulfur derivatives, however, Dell Studio 1737 battery was the formation of small amounts of NOx by the reaction of nitrogen from the air, with some O2. Because of this reaction one of "problems" of hydrogen is flammable and explosive. Because if Hindenburg (destruction of the dirigible Hindenburg in 1937), hydrogen has a bad reputation, but research has shown that the incident was not the hydrogen, but the flammability of the hull of the aircraft.

The flame is barely visible to the eye - which can be dangerous for aid workers in case of fire, the temperature is 2300 ° C in air.

Hydrogen has a wide range of inflammabilitédans air: 4-75% (compared with 5-15% methane), which increases the risk of a hydrogen-rich gas - for example, near a loss. These conditions apply to a temperature and pressure, depending on the temperature and pressure, and the presence of other components of the mixture of inert gas.

The ignition energy is very low (10 times lower than in other hydrocarbons) to 0.02 mJ.

In some cases, the birth, you can witness an explosion. There are two types of explosion: An explosion and detonation, which can sometimes be a transition from deflagration to detonation.

However, hydrogen in the air to spread very rapidly as a result, in the event of a loss of hydrogen escapes upward and its concentration decreases rapidly below the lower explosive limit, which means a safety factor .

Finally, because of its low density, hydrogen tends to escape through micro-holes is possible.

The security aspect should not obscure the fact that hydrogen has been used in industry, and that before the war, the city gas is composed of 60%. Check that you Dell Vostro A840 battery have risks associated with hydrogen has been the subject of intense research, especially in nuclear power plants that hydrogen can be produced in an accident). The first is the possibility of hydrogen accumulation in the blast zone should be reduced, which could reduce the volume of hydrogen gas, and then passes to avoid detonation. They are the means of prevention such as:

the addition of an inert gas (nitrogen-type, CO2)

catalytic recombination of hydrogen with oxygen, using "recombination" autocatalytic passive (passive autocatalytic recombiners (PAR)) that the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen can flow to create the heat of reaction, promote convective mixing levels and prevent Flammability deliberately to prevent ignition of hydrogen, increasing the concentration and movement of the detonation. And 'the fuse that leads to the burning fuel mixture, but only at a concentration close to the threshold of flammability,Dell Latitude D830 battery and in places where the flame spread in the places of greatest concentration. Not the ignition systems of spark ignition and a catalytic igniter.

Ventilation to reduce the concentration of hydrogen in a closed container to dilute

If there is enough security for hydrogen also Ries. Of course it will be defined for each stage of production, transportation, storage and distribution, to ensure its use by the public. But the legislation still to be defined! At the moment there is no legislation on public consumption and use of hydrogen.

The project  HySafe ("The safety of hydrogen as an energy Year"), Dell XPS M1530 battery funded by the European Union, aims to create a network of 24 European partners (+ a Canadian), coordinated by the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It aims to improve the safe use of hydrogen: simulations of cases of leakage of hydrogen limitation and prevention of damage, the standardization of risk analysis in case of fire or explosion.

Synthesis of Hydrogen


Hydrogen production is 630 million m3 in 2007. Now the primary energy demand worldwide by more than 11 million tons of oil equivalent in 2007 (128,000 TWh) was, is, energy demand is expected prévisionde 55% according to the IEA (2007) to increase. The question is followed mainly by oil and coal gas dominates. This means that cover the current production is only 1.5% of demand, so there is plenty on the production of hydrogen reaches a substantial proportion who do is increasing, especially Dell XPS M1730 battery with the demand for energy worldwide.

Hydrogen is produced mainly by reforming of hydrocarbons. The production methods are:

- The steam reforming of natural gas (petrol)

- Partial Oxidation (oil, coal, heavy oil ..)

- Electrolysis

- In the production of ethylene-co-produced.

The first two techniques are almost 95% of total production.

Large groups specializing in the production of hydrogen: Air Liquide (Messer Griesheim), Air Products, Linde Gas, Mahler, Praxair, but also other companies such as Shell Hydrogen, Norsk Hydro, GHW (alkaline electrolyzers Dell XPS M1330 battery manufacturer MTU joint venture of Norsk Hydro and HEW ) are involved.


When the hydrogen has an important role in the field, which is rarely used as an energy source (except missiles). Classically, it is mainly used in:

- The chemical and petrochemical industry (synthesis of ammonia, methanol, dyes, hydrogen peroxide)

- The glass industry,

- Electronics (chips)

- Food (unsaturated fats)

- Steel

- In the production of low sulfur fuels.

This is the generation of hydrogen for Compaq Presario CQ60 battery energy use, which seems to have no future, either with batteries or internal combustion engines. Ammonia production currently represents almost 50% of the consumption of hydrogen applications in the petrochemical industry and for the synthesis of chemicals (methanol, amines, hydrogen peroxide) followed. But in these cases, the cost of hydrogen production cost of finished goods are taken, especially because often centralized on a website. No account the energy is considered.


14:27 Publié dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)


The dangers of exposure to wireless technologies

Our exposure to electromagnetic fields in mobile (mobile phone masts, WiFi, Bluetooth, etc.). This was a lot of concerns that the combination of Robin ceilings complaint on the basis of knowledge through seminars, the speakers are physicians and scientists. He decided to launch an information campaign about the dangers of drastic market launch of the club also focuses on the lack of accountability of governments and private operators to ignore the destructive effects of frequencies shown by these new SONY VAIO VGN-FZ140E Battery technologies.

The Microwave Syndrome

Our body, wonderful small electrical machine is determined by the natural electromagnetic signals that feed the muscle, nervous system, heart and brain. However, these SONY VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery signs are in resonance with an artificial micro-currents of very low intensity in wireless technologies, our senses must not be interpreted in terms of struggle, much less obstruct the proper functioning of our body. According to the World Health Organization, swam in a continuous radio frequency damaging fields, without even realizing it.

Many scientific reports have provided compelling evidence of the damage caused by exposure to radiation on human health are available: DNA damage, interfere imunitaire and nervous system, increased stress, the development ofSONY VAIO VGN-FZ280E Battery cancers such as leukemia or cancers of the brain, the acceleration of Alzheimer's disease, behavioral problems, skin diseases, reproductive, psychological, etc.. And the list goes on ...

The report BioInitiative European Environment Agency and validated by the European Parliament in 2008 brought the sad misfortune, scientific discoveries about the health effects of mobile phones.

The speech is inconceivable to imagine a distribution of these technologies if they were dangerous, not so good, especially because the phone is no longer covered by insurance since 2000 in the world ... It 'strange, remember the story of asbestos.

If you do not listen to the government and industry, which is all of us to behave responsibly, how to use these technologies, which are totally dependent.

Here are some tips from organizations that fight for the safety of people exposed to wireless technologies:

Mobile phones in the house, such as DECT (1) spread to high frequencies is communication, it is better to opt for the fixed line long ago.

For mobile phones, we must focus on a device SONY VAIO VGN-FZ battery with a SAR (2) as low as possible (less than 0.5W/kg) and avoid using the headset cable that transmits the signal in the same cave ear to the brain. Close any case, most of the conversations brief and avoid public transport and car reduces exposure to radiation more.

WiFi high-frequency units, and between the computer and cable internet. The ideal is to pack the box with fabric anti-high-frequency radiation should be sufficient.

Recently the press reported that the state is in this summer, a competition for licensing mobile-Internet 4G (fourth-generation mobile standard). These juicy lead € 2.5 billion, in order to understand his enthusiasm. Néanmois seems less logical is the total absence of impact assessments and know-how to promote these new SONY VAIO VGN-FZ35 Battery technologies.

Given this gross negligence, organizations are in an action plan to mobilize members of the Council of Europe.

First, the implementation of awareness campaigns on the risks of adverse health and the environment a priority by developing a close relationship with the ministries of environment and education, the dissemination of information on the project by teachers, parents and children - are particularly sensitive to exposure to microwave -.

The SONY VAIO VGN-FZ240E Battery need for a threshold level for the prevention of exposure to microwave no later than 0.6 volts per meter is also set an emergency situation and a stimulus to the actual work of research and development of telecommunication technologies in I'm still a neutral effect on our environment on the basis of, or at least compatible with it. This was the idea of ​​a property tax can exceed the thresholds proposed care, thus contributing to an increase in public research funds.

On the other hand, it seems obvious is not necessarily for the operators: each unit contains a detailed risk assessment experience to pre-market and a written simply, the presence of microwave emissions and the SONY VAIO VGN-CR72B/W Battery power of the device should be mandatory.

It is also considered, shall define the electro EHS (electromagnetic susceptibility) syndrome, intolerance to electromagnetic fields and the creation of "white space" is essential to avoid them if they live at home or caulking emmitouffles special clothing from head to toe want. As Robin explains the association of the ceilings, "it is important that 20% of the French region of potential sources of microwave SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S/D Battery radiation, otherwise it is impossible to prove scientifically the origin of the possibilities and the health problems of these new media technologies."

The situation is alarming and will be a real public health problem, if warnings are not taken seriously, or if the interests of industry dates back before the health of the population. To keep Compaq Presario CQ62 Battery no technophobe, it is essential that the fundamental principle of democracy, it is still possible, even for our own good, and act for the next generation.

The child: the first victim of electromagnetic radiation

As mentioned many times the innocent are the first victims of our mistakes. Electromagnetic pollution on children has been demonstrated by several studies, including the United States. Some show a link between autism and exposure to wireless technologies since the late '90s, a period that coincides with the explosion of mobile telephony and the use of Wi-Fi. "Electromagnetic radiation, it seems that heavy metals HP Pavilion DV4 battery into the trap of the cell, reducing its elimination and accelerates the onset of symptoms. An increase of this magnitude can not be a factor of the main results of this environment to provide a method of mechanical explanation satisfied the relationship between autism and wireless technology. "(3)

Scientists believe that children exposed in the vicinity of power lines are also prone to emotional problems, hyperactivity, or appearing at the time of enrollment, the more serious HP Pavilion DV7 battery problems if the mother has had a bad cell phone use during pregnancy. And in fact, through the radiation pulse power is such that penetrate the walls and therefore more easily in the human body.

It 'also important that the fetuses of non-ionizing radiation (propagation of high frequency electric fields are not of natural origin) from other devices, such as induction product HP Pavilion DV6 battery to protect the fetus and have an exposure to electromagnetic waves of much higher level when the mother has the maximum allowable exposure time.

The facts are well represented. Our dependence on these technologies is real. But if you can not go back, it's still a way to protect against the devastating effects of radiation. There are enough "brains" of the situation, the development of sustainable technologies, sustainable environment for the survival of the species of plants, animals and long-term rights. Not passive, ignorant and vulnerable to act responsibly and at least for future toshiba pa3465u-1brs battery generations if they are not for us.


15:14 Publié dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)


Radioactivity: Medical Radiation contamination and accidental

We sometimes read in the writings of authors generally unaware of the problems of radiation protection that the radioactivity induced by simple medical imaging, radiation doses well above those induced SONY VGN-FW21E Battery may cross one or the other major nuclear accident .

It turns out that this comparison is risky because it means, usually comparing the radioactive sources "medical" sources and "accidentally", two very different types of radiaoactivite really.

Protection against radiation "ionizing"

This type of Sony VAIO VGN-Z21MN/B battery radiation called "ionizing" because the tissue can ionize electrons from ion-neutral "responsible" electrically extracted. The ionization tends to modify the nuclei of living cells of the human body, which inevitably leads to damage at high doses.

Ionizing radiation is the programming language the most powerful known as "gamma", you are widely used in medical imaging: X-ray radiography simple (gamma) or by injecting a "contrast" radioactive (technetium 99m). The latter radionuclide is very interesting because it uses the wavelength of X-rays, while providing a period of reduced half-life (approximately 6 hours), removing 95% of the product SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21M Battery within 24 hours.

In addition, the doses injected 99mTc imaging is still limited to a minimum for the patient and taking into account the relationship of the study of the benefits / drawbacks, the "turning point" always needs to get the benefit of patients.

The radiation generated by the nuclear industry

They are created by the spread of radioactive elements called "fission products" that are generated in nuclear reactors as a result of the disintegration of the fuel rods (uranium or mixed uranium-plutonium). The amount of ionizing radiation in these reactions are very important, much higher than in medicine, and are basically "trapped" available through the various radiological barriers SONY VAIO VGN-FZ140E Battery to mitigate the maximum variation of the natural environment (air, water).

Thus, the water in the reactors or fuel storage pools, it stops much of the radioactive emissions and simultaneously the operation of cooling and power generation turbines. It is also necessary that the water level covers the entire nuclear fuel. The most serious accidents occur when, for one reason or another, the HP Probook 4710S battery beams are considered more or less long.

The accident in Fukushima in 5 lines

Fukushima's what happens March 11. The loss extended the Acer Aspire 4710 Battery power system primary and backup systems resulted in the shutdown reactor cooling, resulting in a few hours / days of the loss of radioactive barriers and spread large amounts of radiaoctivité in the air and water.

Long-term radioactive and in large quantities

Radionuclides released during the accident, are numerous and the estimated half-life is more important than 6 hours of technetium. Iodine-131 loses half its radioactivity in eight days while the cesium-137 showed a long half-life of 30 and cesium 135, also produced in large quantities in an accident, Acer TravelMate 4000 Battery have lost half their radiaoctivite later. .. 3 million years.

The amount of radionuclides in the air and water as a result of an accident is released phenomenal WHO estimates that a Chernobyl accident led to the 240,000 liquidators identified an average dose of more than 100 mSv, corresponding to approximately 1000 chest radiographs, displaced populations (400,000 people), the HP Pavilion DV1000 battery effect was on average 33 to 50 mSv corresponds to 330-500 chest radiographs.

The problem of radioactive contamination

Finally, it should be noted that in cases of radiological emergency simple example we only irradiation by ionizing particles to speak, are discussed above. In the case of an accident with significant releases of radionuclides into the air and / or water, radiation "simple" problems that may be contaminated with Sony VGP-BPS5 Battery radioactive dust contaminated the human body during inhalation or ingestion of water or food can be complicated.

However, a radioactive particle will not have the same effect if it is the natural barriers, directly into the body where they radiate from within as it were, and n is its impact in direct contact with the various organs of the body " which should be multiplied. When the irradiation is washing and brushing the body in general to get rid of most or all of the dirt particles. If these particles have entered the body, they stay their Sony VGP-BPS2 Battery course, despite all brush and wash "from outside".

High doses of fraud "borders"

If it's like a big nuclear accident in Japan, the dose limits, who can say absolutely reassuring factors were identified by 10 to 20 This clearly shows the inability of authorities to the problem of radioactivity after the accident other that the "fraud" on the relative security that somehow an adjustment variable for the first time much more efficient and less expensive to solve! Most populous country of Japan and a small living room, hp b2000 battery has no alternative except to remove the "normal" conditions of radioactivity is an important part of the country.

In recent years, it is likely that the health consequences of this option is unfortunately very seriously must also remember that the laptop battery accident was not yet in Fukushima, the site is still spewing large doses of radiaoctivité loans - even if they tend to decrease - and that the main problem of the liquid fuel is not well addressed by the authorities.

There are no photos of the "Radio" and the accident

To summarize: on one side (medicine) has a positive (diagnosis), radiation controlled low doses and reduced half-time, on the other side (nuclear industry) irradiation significant and often uncontrolled radionuclide half-life is extremely long and Acer Aspire One Battery can carry more internal contamination very seriously, it would not be appropriate for the final mix of these two problems, if we dare claim to be totally objective?


15:36 Publié dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)