25/08/2011

Will hydrogen be a fuel in the coming future?

Discovered by Cavendish, is the "hydrogen", the French version of Lavoisier. He found that when approaching a lighted candle near a pipeline that causes the appearance of the flame and combustion gases causes the formation of water on the walls of the sample. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier Asus Eee PC battery decided to call this hydrogen gas, from the greek water "hydro" and "gen" (producer, creator).

Although there are many in the world, there is a natural state is not with other atoms (C, O), such as water or methane (natural gas) is connected. And 'therefore necessary to produce or electrolysis of water, is the reform of the oil or algae ...

The problem, if it is a matter of hydrogen or, more generally,Asus Eee PC 901 battery  is the future / fuel ratio, which sails between optimistic and pessimistic a hard heavy. And fuel cells, hydrogen fascinating. And 'interesting because:

- Frequency - at least in the form of water,

- Ability to solve environmental problems (greenhouse effect) has been the combustion of hydrogen with oxygen produces only water,

- Reduce reliance on fossil fuels and the limited availability of them (do not produce hydrogen from natural gas ..)

It could be the key to the use of renewable energy, particularly solar and wind, in order to store this energy in a chemical form for later use. Hydrogen seems to be a "clean" fuel.

A few dream of a "hydrogen economy, while" in which hydrogen will replace traditional fossil fuels, and it would be an important source of energy production. Hydrogen is certainly a great variety of applications in the speech of petrochemical, food, electronics, glass, air and space, but not the expansion of transportation or Asus Eee PC 1201N battery electricity, the supply of computers and other PDAs ..

But this dream is reality?

An increase utilisition hydrogen requires a lot of problems can be solved:

- The first production, because hydrogen is currently produced, mainly by reforming of natural gas. But the natural gas resources, while important,Asus Eee PC 900 battery  are not unlimited, and the use of natural gas does nothing to solve the problem of CO2 emissions.

- Create the inherited infrastructure of production, but also the transport, storage, distribution, ... This requires that the technical problems are solved and this solution economically and ecologically sustainable.

Finally, there is the eternal problem of eggs and chicken. Which comes first: hydrogen or batteries? The structure and hydrogen needed for the operation of investment demand in a relevant market, Compaq Presario CQ70  battery and the batteries are better with hydrogen.

And 'in every case, a transition period, technological advances, the political will on the part of officials, an attempt by the oil industry and acceptance by consumers to accept. In all cases require the technology or technologies related to hydrogen can be related to energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in order to win.

End of 2008: Where is it?

Politically, many associations, research programs and obligations, and measures to facilitate the development of hydrogen vehicles.

In October 2007 the European Commission adopted two proposals for the development of hydrogen technologies provide. The Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) on fuel cells and hydrogen are: There is an integrated program of research, technological development and demonstration, in collaboration with industry. The program must implement the age of 6 years, an EU contribution of € 470,000,000 is based, HP Pavilion DV5000 battery as well as a similar contribution in the field. ITC aims to accelerate the commercial development of hydrogen over the next ten years. The Commission also aims to facilitate the market entry of hydrogen vehicles, to facilitate their reception. In fact, in September 2008 the European Parliament adopted a regulation on European standards for the registration of vehicles powered by hydrogen. This will be the development of these cars,HP Mini 1000 battery while a more detailed framework for the producer.

United States, President Bush announced in 2003 to develop a $ 1.3 million for research on hydrogen-related technologies. The project is funded by the Department of Energy manages a budget of about $ 200 million a year since then. Some HP HSTNN-DB72 battery states are more advanced than others, like California, where they accumulate projects.

Commitment and support for hydrogen differ from country to country, depending on the results of these studies are the individual decisions of this brand to be like turning the hydrogen in Iceland to Norway, which began in 2004, the project terms of the independent island of energy generated from hydrogen production by hydrolysis of electricity from wind turbines. Denmark HP Pavilion DV5 battery has also to be considered in the beginning, hydrogen generated by wind turbines.

Have been used in applications, in particular cars. In 2008, Honda plans to lease the individual of 200 hydrogen vehicles, the FCX Clarity, California and Japan over the next three years. Stations may use the Shell and other companies. Progress is made in respect of the autonomy given a big problem with service stations limited. The following Chevrolet, GM has traveled 480 km on one tank of gas in 2007. Thirty of Ford vehicles will be tested for professionals in the United States since 2005, but also Canada and Europe. The contract, initially for three years could be extended until 2010. F-Daimler Chrysler vehicles in circulation in Europe and the United States. Since 2003 hydrogen buses begin the streets of Europe since 2003, which was distributed to the creation of hydrogen filling stations in Europe: The Reykjavik already been installed at the end of April 2003,Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS batteryfollowed by another Barcelona, ​​Hamburg and United States (Washington, California) and Japan.

In order to evaluate the progress and the attention for hydrogen, it is interesting, the show car, presented in the following terms of research and prototyping.

In 2007, BMW presented the BMW Hydrogen 7 luxury sedan of an operating system with both petrol and hydrogen. Volkswagen introduced the Space Up hydrogen, a hybrid battery / hydrogen Toshiba Satellite A100 battery in Los Angeles. Fiat Panda Aria has launched a prototype version with a natural gas doped with hydrogen. Far from being a vehicle of pure hydrogen, but the path to reduce emissions. Some concept cars of the type of Italdesign VAD.HO were also presented.

In 2005 the Geneva Motor Show in Detroit and Frankfurt, hydrogen vehicles are still the focus of attention, even though hybrids are hot right now and steal the show as well. We have yet to see the new prototypes: Daimler introduced its zero-emissions vehicle based on a Class B (instead of the F-Cell vehicles) as a result of General Motors with a battery and a lithium ion battery, Dell Studio 1537 battery ,Ford Focus C Max-combustion engine of a hydrogen engine, the Audi A2, H2, Michelin Hy-Light prototype, the concept car Mitsubishi Nessie.

The Paris Motor Show (October 2004) BMW H2R prototype was introduced with a hydrogen combustion engine, a Peugeot quad, cottage cheese with hydrogen. It 'was a step above the Auto Show in Paris (October 2002), where they were introduced several prototypes of hydrogen vehicles: GM Hy-Wire, red for fire vehicles H2O PSA, Dell Studio 17 battery and even motorcycle and a bicycle.

General information on hydrogen

Hydrogen (actually hydrogen) is an odorless, colorless, very easily (by plane) and is composed of two atoms of hydrogen. Their general properties of the table below.

Energy Power

Hydrogen has a high gravimetric energy content: Oil 120 MJ / kg (45 MJ / kg), methanol (20 MJ / kg) and gas (50 MJ / kg) were compared. The gas is also lighter (2016 g / mol H2), as a low volume: 10.8 MJ/m3 face with methanol (16 MJ/m3), natural gas (39.77 MJ / m 3). This represents a problem for storage and transportation: If the use of hydrogen in a vehicle or a tube of public transport, which is a truck, the apparent density that matters. The volumetric Dell Studio 1735 battery energy density of H2 is interesting that a liquid or compressed (700 bar).

The safety aspects of

The hydrogen reacts with oxygen, releasing water and heat (290 kJ / mol H2). The combustion of hydrogen in air, no formation of carbon-sulfur derivatives, however, Dell Studio 1737 battery was the formation of small amounts of NOx by the reaction of nitrogen from the air, with some O2. Because of this reaction one of "problems" of hydrogen is flammable and explosive. Because if Hindenburg (destruction of the dirigible Hindenburg in 1937), hydrogen has a bad reputation, but research has shown that the incident was not the hydrogen, but the flammability of the hull of the aircraft.

The flame is barely visible to the eye - which can be dangerous for aid workers in case of fire, the temperature is 2300 ° C in air.

Hydrogen has a wide range of inflammabilitédans air: 4-75% (compared with 5-15% methane), which increases the risk of a hydrogen-rich gas - for example, near a loss. These conditions apply to a temperature and pressure, depending on the temperature and pressure, and the presence of other components of the mixture of inert gas.

The ignition energy is very low (10 times lower than in other hydrocarbons) to 0.02 mJ.

In some cases, the birth, you can witness an explosion. There are two types of explosion: An explosion and detonation, which can sometimes be a transition from deflagration to detonation.

However, hydrogen in the air to spread very rapidly as a result, in the event of a loss of hydrogen escapes upward and its concentration decreases rapidly below the lower explosive limit, which means a safety factor .

Finally, because of its low density, hydrogen tends to escape through micro-holes is possible.

The security aspect should not obscure the fact that hydrogen has been used in industry, and that before the war, the city gas is composed of 60%. Check that you Dell Vostro A840 battery have risks associated with hydrogen has been the subject of intense research, especially in nuclear power plants that hydrogen can be produced in an accident). The first is the possibility of hydrogen accumulation in the blast zone should be reduced, which could reduce the volume of hydrogen gas, and then passes to avoid detonation. They are the means of prevention such as:

the addition of an inert gas (nitrogen-type, CO2)

catalytic recombination of hydrogen with oxygen, using "recombination" autocatalytic passive (passive autocatalytic recombiners (PAR)) that the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen can flow to create the heat of reaction, promote convective mixing levels and prevent Flammability deliberately to prevent ignition of hydrogen, increasing the concentration and movement of the detonation. And 'the fuse that leads to the burning fuel mixture, but only at a concentration close to the threshold of flammability,Dell Latitude D830 battery and in places where the flame spread in the places of greatest concentration. Not the ignition systems of spark ignition and a catalytic igniter.

Ventilation to reduce the concentration of hydrogen in a closed container to dilute

If there is enough security for hydrogen also Ries. Of course it will be defined for each stage of production, transportation, storage and distribution, to ensure its use by the public. But the legislation still to be defined! At the moment there is no legislation on public consumption and use of hydrogen.

The project  HySafe ("The safety of hydrogen as an energy Year"), Dell XPS M1530 battery funded by the European Union, aims to create a network of 24 European partners (+ a Canadian), coordinated by the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It aims to improve the safe use of hydrogen: simulations of cases of leakage of hydrogen limitation and prevention of damage, the standardization of risk analysis in case of fire or explosion.

Synthesis of Hydrogen

Production

Hydrogen production is 630 million m3 in 2007. Now the primary energy demand worldwide by more than 11 million tons of oil equivalent in 2007 (128,000 TWh) was, is, energy demand is expected prévisionde 55% according to the IEA (2007) to increase. The question is followed mainly by oil and coal gas dominates. This means that cover the current production is only 1.5% of demand, so there is plenty on the production of hydrogen reaches a substantial proportion who do is increasing, especially Dell XPS M1730 battery with the demand for energy worldwide.

Hydrogen is produced mainly by reforming of hydrocarbons. The production methods are:

- The steam reforming of natural gas (petrol)

- Partial Oxidation (oil, coal, heavy oil ..)

- Electrolysis

- In the production of ethylene-co-produced.

The first two techniques are almost 95% of total production.

Large groups specializing in the production of hydrogen: Air Liquide (Messer Griesheim), Air Products, Linde Gas, Mahler, Praxair, but also other companies such as Shell Hydrogen, Norsk Hydro, GHW (alkaline electrolyzers Dell XPS M1330 battery manufacturer MTU joint venture of Norsk Hydro and HEW ) are involved.

Use

When the hydrogen has an important role in the field, which is rarely used as an energy source (except missiles). Classically, it is mainly used in:

- The chemical and petrochemical industry (synthesis of ammonia, methanol, dyes, hydrogen peroxide)

- The glass industry,

- Electronics (chips)

- Food (unsaturated fats)

- Steel

- In the production of low sulfur fuels.

This is the generation of hydrogen for Compaq Presario CQ60 battery energy use, which seems to have no future, either with batteries or internal combustion engines. Ammonia production currently represents almost 50% of the consumption of hydrogen applications in the petrochemical industry and for the synthesis of chemicals (methanol, amines, hydrogen peroxide) followed. But in these cases, the cost of hydrogen production cost of finished goods are taken, especially because often centralized on a website. No account the energy is considered.

 

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