18/07/2011

The facts of nanotechnology to health

Developing countries can use nanotechnology to improve health? The promise of nanomedicine.


Priya Shetty


Nanotechnology, the science of the infinitely small, has enormous potential for health care more efficient distribution of drugs, diagnose diseases faster and more sensitivity and distribution of vaccines through aerosols or patches.


Nanotechnology SONY VGP-BPS9 battery is the science of materials at the molecular or subatomic. Involves the manipulation of particles smaller than 100 nanometers (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter) and involves developing materials or devices of this size, invisible to the naked eye, often hundreds of times thinner than the thickness of a human hair. Physics and chemistry of materials are diametrically different, if the nanoscale reduced, they revolutionize the different resistance, conductivity and reactivity, HP Pavilion DV7 battery and the use of medicine.


For example, is a major challenge for modern medicine, the body absorb administered is not able to complete the dose of medication to a patient. Using nanotechnology, scientists can ensure that drugs are released in certain areas of the body more accurately, so that the drugs are formulated so that the active ingredients penetrate cell membranes, where dose required SONY VGP-BPS8 battery ....


Rich countries are investing heavily in nanotechnology to health. The first generation of drugs against cancer delivered by the nanoparticles, for example, Toshiba PA3728U-1BRS battery has already been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for its acronym in English) approved by the United States.


It is too early to speak of nanotechnology in health care and is still hotly debated, the possibility that it is useful for poor countries. Critics argue that if millions of people from countries like India and in sub-Saharan Africa die from lack of access to basic health care,Toshiba PA3634U-1BAS battery  investment in technology is an absurd waste of money.


Critics argue that if millions of people from countries like India and in sub-Saharan Africa die from lack of access to basic health care, investment in technology is an absurd waste of money.


Experts fear that the toxicity Toshiba PA3728U-1BRS battery of nanoparticles on human health and the environment have not been adequately studied. For example, a 2004 report recommended by the Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering in the UK that are of nanoparticles and nanotubes, cylindrical molecules of carbon, the better conductor than normal carbon molecules were treated as hazardous waste.


Many emerging countries like Brazil, China, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore and South Africa have big plans for research and development (R & D) in nanotechnology. Their governments need to balance the needs of short-term health investments in Toshiba PABAS178 battery technology.


But while the poor countries to build a permanent system of responsibility for health, and have better access to medicine, nanotechnology could, in the long run to save lives by improving the diagnosis and treatment.


A group of scientists describes the uses of nanotechnology and global health needs states that nanomedicine is relevant to the developing world. The researchers interviewed over the world and concluded that nanotechnology could contribute significantly to achieving the Millennium Toshiba PA3635U-1BAM battery Development Goals in the health field. Specifically, the goals of reducing child mortality, reducing maternal mortality and combating HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseases.


Diagnosis and Detection


In the developing world an urgent need for better diagnosis of diseases, nanotechnology offers multiple options for screening.


One way is to use quantum dots, nano-sized semiconductors that can be used as biosensors to detect the disease and used as fluorescent.


Sometimes Toshiba PA3817U-1BAS battery called nanocrystals, quantum dots have significant advantages over traditional organic dyes, such as the fact that their brightness can be adapted to a wide range of frequencies and may degrade more slowly in the human body. Quantum dots of fluorescence can be associated with antibodies that target cancer cells or cells infected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV.


Fluorescent quantum dots can also be used to diagnose malaria, so this target the protein that forms a mesh in the inner membrane of red blood cells. The shape of the network evolution of proteins in cells infected with malaria, scientists can detect an infection caused by the points of form Toshiba PABAS228 battery.


Similarly, carbon nanotubes and other nanoparticles and nanowires were used as biosensors to detect diseases such as HIV and cancer. It can, for example, biosensors linking nucleic acid probes for cancer of the ends of the nanowires.


These Dell Latitude E6400 battery probes are specially designed to adhere to biomarkers that indicate cancer, a mutated RNA. When transferred to an RNA sample interacts with the probes, electric currents are induced along the nanowires, which is detected by the silicon chip that is embedded in the biosensor.


Drug Delivery


Nanotechnology can also revolutionize the distribution of drugs to overcome, such as maintaining the release of drugs in the human body and improve the bioavailability, ie the amount of active ingredient per dose.


Some drugs can now be released via 'nanovehicles. "For example, liposomes, which can charge the drug release through the fusion with cell membranes have been used to encapsulate anti-HIV drugs such as stavudine and zidovudine for vehicles from 120 to 200 nanometers in Dell Latitude E6410 battery size.


For two agents cover a short half-life may have to keep them active liposomes for a prolonged period.


Other delivery systems (hollow molecules composed entirely of carbon in the form of Football) the use of nano-fullerene cages drugs, known as "buckyballs," and calls nanomolecules branched dendrimers.


Vaccines


Nanotechnology could herald a new era in immunization with alternatives to injectable vaccines for diseases of the poor. Injectable vaccines have


managed by health professionals that are rare Toshiba PA3635U-1BRM battery in developing countries, particularly in rural areas. The vaccines also require adequate cooling of the supply chain. Scientists are working on a vaccine against tuberculosis aerosol. They also examine a patch of nanotechnology against the West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus.


Injectable vaccines may be useful if the inactive virus binds to the nanoparticles to enhance the immune response. This method is used to develop a vaccine against pandemic influenza.


Leaders in the package


So far, China tops the list of major developing countries in nanotechnology research, has the largest number of patents on this technology. He had a national nanotechnology since the early nineties and many new nanotechnology companies are established Toshiba PA3817U-1BRS battery each year.


India is also very serious about nanotechnology, with over 30 institutions involved in the investigation. The countries of South Asia are particularly active, with the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam engaged in nanotechnology research.


Meanwhile, Dell Latitude E6500 battery in Africa, South Africa to work in both public and private R & D in nanotechnology. Brazil, which is at the forefront of nanotechnology research in Latin America, South Africa and India together for South-South cooperation under the IBSA Nanotechnology Initiative to encourage.


Many other developing countries hope to catch up. A 2005 survey of the general activity of nanotechnology research classifies the countries that fall under national or financing activities (which clearly has a national or state funding), with at least one person or group of nanotechnology research is involved, Toshiba PA3636U-1BRL battery and those whose governments have expressed interest in pursuing nanotechnology


Nanotechnology is a science much, but the cost of creating a school appear to vary considerably across countries. For example, said in Mexico and Vietnam, it costs about $ 5 million to establish an institute for nanotechnology, but Costa Rica Dell Latitude E6510 battery has made for less than $ 500,000.


Public acceptance


What is technically possible Toshiba PA3638U-1BAP battery and what is ethically correct subject of heated debate. In developing countries, such as nanomedicine discusses the ethical problems created by genetically modified foods. If people need emergency food or medicine, no matter how you arrive? And people are illiterate or just right to participate in discussions on the impact of these new technologies in high society?. The invisible nature of nanotechnology is to "hide" more easily nano-products, penetrate and confidentiality procedures that require the consent, without the knowledge of the patient. This SONY VGP-BPS13 battery may be particularly relevant for clinical trials in developing countries nanodrogas.


If people need emergency food or medicine, no matter how you arrive?


Governments of developing countries must be careful. To ensure the ability of ethical clinical trials is usually very rare in the SONY VGP-BPS21 battery developing world and the introduction of health products based on nanotechnology that require building can missing. Like other health technologies, there is nothing inherently good or bad on nanotechnology. It depends on how it is used.


In the health field,Toshiba PABAS117 battery progress in nanotechnology with other technologies, including biotechnology and information technology are combined, causing them to "move" their potential for action systems and health, where regulation has worked in recent years. An example is the development of a computer-controlled molecular tools that have no direct intervention of a physician. O nano-sensors that store medical information to measure an individual may lead to problems of storage, HP Pavilion DM4 battery access and use of this information.


Even in developed countries in the study of morality, ethics, environment and equity returns fell into scientific advances in nanotechnology to health. Nanotechnology is perhaps not as advanced in the Third World, as in Britain or the United States, but it's just a matter of time before China and India catch up. Developing countries should not wait for the technology to do justice to the doors of their ethical Dell Precision M4400 battery and social implications.

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